东祁连山高寒草甸不同退化阶段植被/土壤磷素特征及其与生物量的关系
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甘肃省草原生态修复治理科技支撑项目(2021);甘肃省自然科学基金(20JR5RA036)


Vegetation and soil phosphorus characteristics and their relationships with the biomass of degraded alpine meadow phases in eastern Qilian Mountains
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    摘要:

    磷素是高寒草地生态系统的重要支持元素,高寒草甸退化导致较为严重的生态和生产问题,同时也引起了生态系统物质循环的变化。为揭示高寒草甸退化中土壤磷素特征及其对植被特征的效应,以东祁连山轻度(LD)、中度(MD)、重度退化(SD)高寒草甸退化阶段为研究对象,以多年围封高寒草甸(FG)为对照,在春季和夏季分别对不同高寒草甸阶段样地不同土层深度土壤全磷、有效磷、微生物量磷含量及碱性磷酸酶活性等磷素特征进行了研究,并对夏季植被地上生物量和磷素含量等植被特征进行了调查。结果表明:东祁连山高寒草甸退化导致植被地上生物量和磷含量急剧下降,重度退化高寒草甸地上生物量干重仅是围封草地的35.93%,退化高寒草甸地上部磷含量仅为围封草地的60%,且不同退化阶段地上部磷含量没有明显差异。退化导致高寒草甸表层土壤的全磷、有效磷含量升高,相比FG,土壤有效磷含量春季LD、MD和SD分别升高了16.67%、36.67%和3.33%,夏季分别升高了4.35%、26.09%和4.35%,且有效磷含量具有夏季低于春季的季节差异性。退化导致土壤微生物量磷含量明显降低,而对碱性磷酸酶活性影响没有明显的规律性,但围封草地夏季碱性磷酸酶活性高于春季。牧草干重与土壤全磷含量呈极显著正相关,与土壤碱性磷酸酶活性呈显著负相关,但牧草磷含量与土壤磷素特征指标未表现出显著相关性,表明土壤磷素特征并不是退化高寒草甸植被磷含量降低的原因。

    Abstract:

    Phosphorus is the key support element in alpine grassland ecosystem. Alpine meadow degradation has caused many important ecological and production problems in pasturing area, and also produced the changes of nutrients recycling in ecosystems. The effects of degradation on phosphorus in alpine meadow ecosystem is complex because of the special climax and utilization strategies. Thus phosphorus recycling and its effects on productivity in degraded alpine meadow ecosystem was overlooked in the past years. Three typical phases of degraded alpine meadow, lightly degraded(LD), middle degraded(MD), and seriously degraded(SD) alpine meadow phases were chosen to study the effects of alpine meadow degradation on soil and vegetation phosphorus characteristics and their relationships with the vegetation biomass in eastern Qilian Mountain, and the control experiment treatment was the fenced restoration alpine meadow (FG). Soil phosphorus characteristics, such as soil total phosphorus, available phosphorus, microbial phosphorus content, and alkaline phosphatase activity of different alpine meadow phases in spring and summer, and the corresponding vegetation above-ground plant biomass and phosphorus content in growth season were studied, respectively. The results showed that the above-ground plant biomass decreased seriously after degradation in the alpine meadows of eastern Qilian Mountain. The above-ground plant dry weight of SD was only 35.93% of FG. The above-ground phosphorus content also decreased significantly after degradation, but there were no significant differences among different degradation degrees. The above-ground phosphorus content of the degraded alpine meadow was only 60% of the FG. Soil total and available phosphorus content in surface soil depth increased after degradation in the alpine meadows. Soil available phosphorus content of LD, MD and SD increased by 16.67%, 36.67%, 3.33% in spring, and 4.35%, 26.09%, 4.35% in summer, respectively. Meanwhile, soil available phosphorus content showed the seasonal difference which was higher in spring than summer. Degradation induced soil microbial phosphorus content to decrease, but it had no obvious rule on soil alkaline phosphatase activity. But soil alkaline phosphatase activity of FG in summer was higher than spring. Pearson correlation analyses showed that above-ground plant dry weight was positively correlated with soil total phosphorus content, and negatively correlated with soil alkaline phosphatase activity, while there was no significantly correlated relationship between the above-ground plant phosphorus and soil phosphorus characteristics, which reflected that soil phosphorus characteristics was not the reason for the reduction of above-ground plant phosphorus content. This study revealed phosphorus characteristics and their relationships in soil-plant system, which could provide basis for the management and restoration of degraded grassland in alpine area.

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李亚娟,瞿丹,高亚君,达朝玲,鱼小军,史志翯,徐晶晶.东祁连山高寒草甸不同退化阶段植被/土壤磷素特征及其与生物量的关系.生态学报,2023,43(18):7381~7389

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