1.北京林业大学 林学院;2.北京林业大学 生态与自然保护学院;3.北京林业大学
1.Collage of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University;2.Beijing Forestry University
Special Basic Investigation Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China
摘要：白桦(Betula platyphylla)—长白落叶松(Larix olgensis)林是长白山东坡火山爆发后形成的次生林，也是暗针叶林演替系列的重要阶段，研究其优势种群的数量增长和消亡对揭示群落演替过程机理有重要意义。以长白山地区白桦—长白落叶松林优势种群为研究对象，于2020年进行标准地调查获取数据，采用径级代替龄级的方法，通过编制静态生命表，绘制存活曲线和生存分析函数曲线，计算数量动态指数，并引用谱分析和时间序列模型预测，研究了长白山东坡白桦和长白落叶松种群的年龄结构和数量动态特征。结果显示：1) 白桦种群径级结构呈典型的倒“J”型分布，Ⅰ龄级个体数量占比高达52.56%；长白落叶松种群结构呈近似钟形。2) 种群动态量化分析显示，白桦种群和长白落叶松种群的动态变化指数Vpi均大于0，说明种群均为增长型，但后者V′pi趋近于0，说明受外界干扰时，长白落叶松种群更倾向于稳定型。3) 白桦和长白落叶松种群个体死亡率和消失率曲线变化趋势基本一致，存活曲线均为Deevey-II型。4) 生存分析发现，白桦种群前期(Ⅰ—Ⅳ龄级)锐减，中期(Ⅳ—Ⅶ龄级)稳定；长白落叶松种群前期(Ⅰ—Ⅲ龄级)增长，中期(Ⅲ—Ⅸ龄级)稳定，后期(Ⅸ—XIII龄级)衰退。5) 谱分析显示，白桦种群和长白落叶松种群基波均最大(1.63和0.85)，表明种群天然更新受生物学特性控制。6)随着时间的推移，白桦种群个体数逐渐增多；长白落叶松种群个体数量波动较大但总体呈增加趋势。
Abstract: Betula platyphylla—Larix olgensis forest is a secondary forest established after volcanic eruptions on the eastern slope of Changbai Mountain and an important stage in the succession series of dark coniferous forest. It is of great significance to clarify the growth and extinction of the dominant populations to reveal the mechanism of succession. Taking the dominant population of B. platyphylla and L. olgensis forest in Changbai Mountain area as the research object, the data obtained from the standard plot survey in 2020. In this study, the age structure and dynamic characteristics of B. platyphylla and L. olgensis populations on the eastern slope of Changbai Mountain were studied by compiling static life tables, plotting survival curves and survival analysis function curves, calculating dynamic indexes, and referring spectral analysis and time series model predictions. The results showed that: 1) the diameter class structure of B. platyphylla population presented a typical inverted “J” distribution, and the number of individuals of age class I accounted for 52.6%; The population of L. olgensis showed a rough bell-shaped pattern. 2) The quantitative analysis of population dynamics showed that the dynamic change indexes Vpi of B. platyphylla population and L. olgensis population were both greater than 0, revealing that both populations were of growth type. But the V′pi of the latter approached 0, indicating that L. olgensis population was affected by external disturbances. 3) In general, the mortality and disappearance rate curves showed a same trend of B. platyphylla population and L. olgensis population, and the survival curves were Deevey-II. 4) Survival analysis showed that the population of B. platyphylla decreased sharply in the early stage (Ⅰ—Ⅳ) and leveled off in the middle stage (Ⅳ—Ⅶ). The L. olgensis increased in the early stage (I—III), stablilized in the middle stage (III—IIX), and declined in late stage (IX—XIII). 5) Spectrum analysis showed that the fundamental wave of B. platyphylla and L. olgensis population was the largest (1.63 and 0.85), indicating that the natural regeneration of the population was controlled by biological characteristics. 6) The number of individuals for B. platyphylla increased gradually with time, whereas L. olgensis showed an increasing trend as a whole although fluctuation was profound.
刘文婷,张金峰,刘琪璟.长白山东坡白桦—长白落叶松林优势种群结构与动态特征.生态学报,,(). http://dx. doi. org/[doi]复制