海洋生物礁类型、生态功能及其生态修复
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海南省重大科技计划项目(ZDKJ2021008);河北农业大学大学生创新创业训练计划项目(2021KY05)


A review of types, functions and ecological restoration of marine biogenic reefs
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    摘要:

    海洋生物礁是由具有造礁能力的海洋生物聚集而成的一种三维礁体结构,其形成改变了海底地貌、增加了不同尺度上的地形复杂性,为其他海洋生物提供了栖息地并维持了生物多样性。近年来,由于自然因素和人为因素影响,海洋生物礁受到了严重威胁,已成为海洋生态保护和修复领域的重要研究对象。综述了海洋生物礁的类型、生态功能及其生态修复的研究进展。根据形成海洋生物礁的优势造礁生物种类,将海洋生物礁分为海藻礁、海绵礁、刺胞动物礁、贝类礁和多毛类礁,其优势造礁生物分别是珊瑚藻和仙掌藻、钙质海绵和硅质海绵、造礁珊瑚、牡蛎、龙介虫。目前国内对海洋生物礁的全面了解相对较少,主要集中在珊瑚礁和牡蛎礁。海洋生物礁的生态功能主要有海岸防护、提供栖息地、净化水体、固碳作用和能量耦合等。全球变暖和海洋酸化等全球气候变化以及海洋污染、破坏性渔业捕捞、海岸工程、水产养殖和敌害生物等自然和人为因素对海洋生物礁构成了严重威胁。海洋生物礁的生态修复方法分为两类:在退化生物礁区投放造礁生物逐渐成礁,投放人工礁体补充造礁生物逐渐成礁。针对海洋生物礁保护和修复的需要,提出下一步应加强海洋造礁生物生态特征、海洋造礁生物种群丧失因素和海洋生物礁保护与修复基础理论等方面研究。

    Abstract:

    Marine biogenic reefs are three-dimensional reef structures formed by the aggregation of reef-building organisms and bonding organisms, which change the seabed topography, increase the complexity of the terrain at different scales, and provide habitats for other marine organisms and maintain biodiversity in the ocean. In recent years, due to the influence of natural and human factors, marine biogenic reefs have been seriously threatened and become important research objects in the field of marine ecological protection and restoration. In this paper, recent researches on types, ecological functions and ecological restoration of marine biogenic reefs were reviewed. According to the dominant reef-building organisms, marine biogenic reefs were divided into seaweed reefs (mainly coralline algae reefs and Halimeda reefs), sponge reefs (mainly calcareous sponge-reefs and siliceous sponge-reefs), cnidaria reefs (mainly coral reefs), shellfish reefs (mainly oyster reefs), and polychaete reefs (mainly Serpulid reefs). Correspondingly, the dominant reef-building organisms were coralline algae and Halimeda, calcareous sponges and siliceous sponges, reef-building corals, oysters and calcareous tube worms. At present, there is relatively little comprehensive understanding of marine biogenic reefs in China, mainly focusing on coral reefs and oyster reefs. The ecological functions of marine biogenic reefs mainly included coastal protection (e.g., wave-energy dissipation, wave elimination and shoreline protection from erosion), habitat provision (e.g., providing foraging habitat, spawning grounds, nursery grounds and shelter), water purification (e.g., reducing the concentration of suspended particulate matter, phytoplankton, organic debris and heavy metals), carbon sequestration and energy coupling (e.g., calcification and biodeposition). Global climate change such as global warming and ocean acidification, as well as natural and anthropogenic factors such as marine pollution, destructive fishing, coastal engineering, aquaculture and predators, posed serious threats to marine biogenic reefs. Once damaged, structures and functions of marine biogenic reefs are destroyed to some extent. If they are not repaired in time, they will degrade or even diminish. Currently, there are two types of ecological restoration methods for marine biogenic reefs:one is to put reef-building organisms in the degraded biogenic reef areas, and artificially create good living conditions for them to gradually gather into reefs; the other is to put artificial reefs made of concrete and environmental-friendly materials to induce gregarious larvae of reef-building organisms to settle and gather, that is, recruit reef-building organisms to form reefs gradually. In short, there are two ways to restore marine biogenic reefs:to put reef-building organisms in degraded biogenic reef areas to form reefs gradually or to put artificial reefs to recruit reef-building organisms to form reefs gradually. In view of the needs of the protection and restoration of marine reefs, we assume that it is significant to strengthen research on the ecological characteristics of marine reef-building organisms, the factors of population loss of marine reef-building organisms and the basic theory of marine reef protection and restoration in the future.

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安鑫龙,顾继光,李元超,张志敏,李雪梅.海洋生物礁类型、生态功能及其生态修复.生态学报,2023,43(19):7874~7885

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