东北虎豹国家公园梅花鹿的空间遗传格局及其影响因素
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国家自然科学基金资助项目(32071494);科技部基础资源调查项目(2019FY101700)


Spatial genetic pattern and influencing factors of Sika Deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum) in Northeast Tiger & Leopard National Park
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National Natural Science Foundation of China (32071494); The National Science and Technology Basic Resources Survey Program of China (2019FY101700).

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    摘要:

    东北梅花鹿是东北虎豹国家公园主要的大型食草动物之一,是东北虎豹的主要猎物,对针阔混交林群落的维持有关键的作用,探究其遗传多样性及空间遗传格局对东北梅花鹿的保护以及国家公园生态系统的健康至关重要。在国家公园珲春保护区内,通过非损伤方法获得遗传样本,利用微卫星标记,研究该梅花鹿种群的空间遗传格局及其影响因素。结果表明:本研究区梅花鹿种群平均期望杂合度为0.721,遗传多样性较为丰富。有限的扩散能力常常导致种群在遗传距离上具有显著的空间自相关模式,本研究区梅花鹿种群在0-1km距离等级内在遗传距离上具有显著的空间自相关现象,据此可推测,该地区梅花鹿扩散距离为1km左右。STRUCTURE分析表明,珲春地区梅花鹿种群不存在明显的遗传分化。各种空间变量可以显著影响物种的遗传分化。本研究选取海拔、坡度、坡向、地表起伏率、人类干扰5个变量,研究其对梅花鹿种群遗传结构的影响,这5个变量多被认为与大中型哺乳动物扩散阻碍相关。依据5个变量建立了336个阻力模型,并进行偏曼特尔检验。其中,依据海拔、坡向、地表起伏率、人类干扰假设建立的246个阻力模型与遗传距离之间的关系并不显著,综合所有变量的15个生境适宜性模型阻力模型与遗传距离的关系也都不显著。在依据坡度假设建构的75个阻力模型中,只有1个模型与遗传距离有显著的正相关关系,该模型同时也是在控制空间自相关影响后,在所有模型中与遗传距离相关性最高的模型。根据该模型推测,最适宜梅花鹿扩散的坡度为10°,梅花鹿可能倾向于利用缓坡进行扩散。结果对东北虎豹国家公园梅花鹿种群的保护具有重要意义。

    Abstract:

    The Northeast Sika deer is one of the major large herbivores in the Northeast Tiger and Leopard National Park. It is the main prey of the Amur tigers and leopards. It also plays a key role in maintaining the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest community. It is very important to explore its genetic diversity and the spatial genetic pattern for conservation of the Sika deer and the ecosystem of the national park. In this study, genetic samples were obtained by non-invasive methods in Hunchun Reserve in the National Park, and microsatellite markers were used to study the spatial genetic pattern of the sika deer population and its influencing factors. The results showed that the average expected heterozygosity of the sika deer population was 0.721, which was rich in genetic diversity compared with other populations. Limited dispersal capacity often results in populations with significant spatial autocorrelation patterns over genetic distance. The sika deer population had the significantly spatial autocorrelation in the genetic distance of 0-1 km distance grade, based on which it could be speculated that the sika deer dispersal distance or home range was about 1 km. STRUCTURE analysis showed that there was no significant genetic differentiation in the population.Various spatial variables can significantly influence the genetic differentiation of species. In this study, 5 variables, altitude, slope, slope, surface relief ratio, and human disturbance, were selected to study their effects on the genetic structure of the population, which are mostly considered to be associated with dispersal barriers in large and medium-sized mammals. This study built 336 resistance models based on those variables and performed the partial Mantel test. Among them, 246 resistance models based on the hypothesis of altitude, slope, surface surface relief ratio, and human disturbance were not significantly related to genetic distance, nor were the 15 habitat suitability models integrating all variables. Of the 75 resistance models constructed under the slope hypothesis, only 1 model showed significant positive correlation with genetic distance, which was also the model with the highest correlation with genetic distance among all models after controlling for spatial autocorrelation effects. According to the model, the most suitable slope for sika deer dispersal is 10°, sika deer may tend to use gentle slope for dispersal. The results were important for the conservation of sika deer populations in the National Park.

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段兴汉,吴峰,张素青,鲍蕾,王红芳.东北虎豹国家公园梅花鹿的空间遗传格局及其影响因素.生态学报,2023,43(17):7181~7192

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