景观基质对雅江中游河谷黑颈鹤冬季觅食地选择的影响
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西藏日喀则市科技计划项目(RKZ2020KJ02,RKZ2021KJ03)


Effects of landscape matrix on winter foraging-habitat selection of Black-necked Crane in the middle reach of the Yarlung Zangbo River, Tibet, China
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    摘要:

    生态系统中生境斑块并非孤立存在,而是嵌于周边景观基质中。生境内种群赖以生存的资源和环境条件不仅取决于生境本身,更与景观基质组成与结构紧密关联。黑颈鹤是青藏高原的旗舰物种,雅鲁藏布江中游河谷高寒湿地是全球最大的黑颈鹤越冬地,为其提供了良好的觅食生境。厘清该区域黑颈鹤觅食生境选择如何受景观基质组成结构的影响,对于青藏高原旗舰物种保护以及流域生态系统综合治理具有重要意义。运用景观生态学原理,以遥感影像和实地黑颈鹤种群调查数据为基础,结合景观基质多尺度缓冲区构建、相关分析以及Maxent模型,分析2000-2020年雅江中游河谷黑颈鹤国家级自然保护区(日喀则片区)景观格局时空变化和觅食地生境特征及其与黑颈鹤种群的关系,探究景观基质对黑颈鹤觅食地选择的影响,并利用关键生境因子模拟黑颈鹤生境适宜性分布。通过分析发现:(1)时间尺度上,雅江中游河谷耕地面积先增加后下降,滩地持续减少;空间尺度上,觅食黑颈鹤种群呈东多西少的集群分布特征,其分布范围与河谷内耕地分布基本吻合;(2)景观基质对黑颈鹤觅食地选择影响显著。景观结构上,黑颈鹤偏好连通性好、优势度高的景观基质;景观组成上,偏好基质中耕地和水域类型,这与黑颈鹤的觅食习性及对环境安全的生态位需求有关;(3)景观基质结构组成对黑颈鹤觅食地选择的影响具有显著的尺度效应。景观基质结构影响最显著的空间尺度为1500-2000m。但基质中耕地、草地和水域等景观组成要素对黑颈鹤的影响具有不同空间尺度效应,分别为1500m、3000m和4000m;(4)通过模型模拟,揭示出黑颈鹤适宜生境面积先增后减,但总体较2000年呈上升趋势,且基质中觅食地与耕地的距离、水域斑块密度和偏好景观组成的优势度始终是生境适宜性解释率最高的景观因子。本研究揭示出,该区域乡村规划应该统筹优化黑颈鹤栖息生境及其景观基质中的作物生产以及居民生活,形成以黑颈鹤旗舰物种保护为核心的高寒湿地生态系统综合管理模式,从而增强青藏高原高寒生态系统的稳定性和可持续性,同时也为深入研究物种生境选择机制提供了思路。

    Abstract:

    In ecosystems, habitat patches are rarely isolated but embedded within surrounding landscape matrix. The resources and environmental conditions required by the species population not only depended on the habitats, but also on the composition and structure of landscape matrix surrounding the habitats. Black-necked crane is a flagship species on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and the alpine wetland along the valley of the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River is the world largest overwintering habitat providing a high-quality foraging environments for the species. Clarifying how the selection of foraging habitats of black-necked crane is influenced by landscape matrix is of great significance for flagship species protection and comprehensive management of watershed ecosystems. Based on landscape ecology principles, this study used the data from remote sensing images and field survey. By constructing multiple-scale buffer zones of landscape matrix, conducting multivariable correlation analyses, and building the Maxent model, spatial and temporal changes of landscape patterns and habitat characteristics, and their relatedness with black-necked crane population along the valley of the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River from 2000 to 2020 were analyzed. And then, the influences of landscape matrix structure on the selection of foraging sites of black-necked cranes were investigated. Further, the key habitat factors were used to simulate the habitat suitability distribution of the species. We found that:(1) Temporally, the area of croplands along the river valley increased during early years but decreased during recent years, and shallows continually decreased; Spatially, species population demonstrated a cluster distribution pattern concentrating on the east but less on the west, which overlaps with the distribution of cultivated land along the valley; (2) Landscape matrix significantly influenced the selection of foraging habitats. Structurally, black-necked cranes prefer foraging habitats surrounded by the matrix with high landscape connectivity and high dominance in landscape structure; compositionally, the matrix with cultivated land types are mostly preferred. If the matrix with high proportion of other landscape types or fragment cultivated-land patches, the species would not select the habitats within such matrix, which may relate to the foraging habits and the demand for environmental security of black-necked cranes; (3) The influences of structure and composition of landscape matrix on habitat selection of the species also showed scale effects. The most significantly influencing scale is 1500-2000 m, but different landscape types, such as cultivated land, grassland, and water area, showed different influence scales at 1500m, 3000 m and 4000 m, respectively; (4) Through modeling simulation, it is revealed that the suitable habitat area of black-necked crane increases at first and then decreases, but it shows an upward trend as a whole compared with that in 2000. The distance of the habitats to cropland, patch density of waters and landscape dominance were always the most contributing landscape factors in explaining the habitat suitability. The study reveals that, the rural planning in this region should optimize black necked crane's habitats and surrounding landscape matrix in which crop production and household living would be considered as a whole, forming a comprehensive management of the alpine wetland ecosystems taking the protection of the flagship species as the core. Such a management would enhance the stability and sustainability of the alpine ecosystems on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Meanwhile, results of this study also provide a perspective for in-depth studies on the mechanism of species habitat selection.

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张久红,洪兆春,崔建钊,孙移斌,赵存峰,黄金夏,马茂华.景观基质对雅江中游河谷黑颈鹤冬季觅食地选择的影响.生态学报,2023,43(18):7701~7714

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