Key Research and Development Program of Ningxia (CN)(2021BEG03019)
实现碳达峰、碳中和是我国生态文明建设的重点战略方向。按照"目标设计-要素布局-方案实施"的基本逻辑,可以对碳达峰、碳中和的工作要点进行系统梳理。基于自然的解决方案(Nature-based Solutions, NbS)是国际社会普遍认可的生态恢复前沿理念,具备可持续性、系统性、尺度性、适应性四方面核心特质,能够有效回应"双碳"目标的工作要求。碳达峰、碳中和与NbS在目标导向和实践思路上高度契合,二者均以可持续发展为主要目标,NbS八项实施准则亦能够为"双碳"工作的积极推进提供全面系统的行动框架。结合NbS实施准则,具体提出基于自然的碳达峰、碳中和八大关键议题:(1)统筹减污降碳协同增效的政策体系;(2)强化尺度级联的传导机制;(3)构建基于自然的固碳途径;(4)完善多元化的碳汇交易;(5)兼顾社会公平的参与机制;(6)促进基于权衡的路径选择;(7)创新动态连续的监测手段;(8)推动NbS在"双碳"领域主流化,以期支撑国家碳达峰、碳中和可持续解决方案的落实。
Goals of peak carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality are the key strategic direction for construction of an ecological civilization. Based on the principle of "goals setting, system element layout, and solution strategies implementation", this paper summarized the key points to achieve peak carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality goals. As a cutting-edge concept, Nature-based Solutions (NbS) has been widely recognized by the international community. The core characteristics of sustainability, systematization, scale and adaptability of NbS can effectively promote the achievement of peak carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality goals. As both taking sustainable development as the main goal, NbS is highly compatible with the goals of peak carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality in goal orientation and thinking of practice. Furthermore the eight criteria of NbS can also provide a comprehensive and systematic framework for the active promotion of the goals of peak carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality. Combined with the NbS criteria, eight issues are specifically proposed: (1) coordinating policy system for synergy of pollution reduction and carbon reduction; (2) strengthening the mechanism of information transmission in different scales; (3) building a nature-based pathway to carbon sequestration; (4) improving diversified carbon sink trading; (5) formulating participation rules that take into account social equity; (6) promoting path selection based on trade-offs; (7) innovating dynamic and long-term monitoring methods; and (8) promoting the mainstreaming of NbS in field of peak carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality.