Arthropods constitute a large proportion of biological diversity in wetlands, playing an important role in maintaining ecological function and being useful indicators of wetland environmental conditions. In order to study the effects of human activities on the composition and diversity of arthropods and their indicative characteristics, the arthropod communities were collected in 23 natural and disturbed wetlands in the Sanjiang National Nature Reserve in July 2020. A total of 1825 individuals were collected, belonging to ten orders and 47 families, and Diptera and Hemiptera insects were the dominant taxonomic groups. The abundance of arthropods in natural wetlands was 4.27 times higher than that in the disturbed wetlands. The species richness of arthropods was significantly higher in natural wetlands than in disturbed wetlands (P<0.05), while Pielou's evenness index was higher in disturbed wetlands than that in natural wetlands (P<0.05). Clustering and non-metric multidimensional scale analysis (NMDS) analysis indicated that the arthropod assemblages in disturbed wetlands significantly differed from natural wetlands. Chrysomelidae, Anthicidae, Aphididae, Cicadellidae, Miridae, Chironomidae, and Ichneumonoidea were indicators for natural wetlands, while no indicators were found in disturbed wetlands. Our results demonstrate that wetland arthropods are very sensitive to human disturbance and can be used as key groups to evaluate the wetland ecosystem health.