科学测度水资源和水环境可持续能力,对区域水资源管理具有重要意义。从"水量"和"水质"两个角度,对我国31个省域地区的"水量"及"水质"生态足迹、生态承载力和生态压力指数进行研究。结果表明:(1)2000-2020年,我国水资源生态压力指数均小于1,最高值为2011年的0.86,总体水量供给充足,可持续能力强;万元GDP水量生态足迹呈波动下降趋势,用水效率大幅度提升。(2)2000-2020年,我国水质可持续能力均较强,处于安全和较安全状态,水质生态盈余量约2亿hm2;人均水质承载力约为人均水质生态足迹的2倍,且万元GDP产生的污水量呈下降趋势。(3)人均水量生态足迹和万元GDP水量生态足迹的空间重心均位于甘肃省。水量及水质生态足迹高值区,均主要位于"胡焕庸线"西北部,而承载力高值区,主要位于青藏高原和我国南方地区。(4)我国水量可持续能力处于安全、临界状态和不安全的地区数,分别占55%、6%和39%;水质可持续能力处于安全、临界状态和不安全的地区数,分别占61%、3%和35%;水量及水质可持续能力较强和较弱的地区数之比,约为6 ∶ 4。研究揭示了我国水量及水质风险等级的区域差异,有助于为我国水资源管理及水污染防治提供科学依据。
Scientific measurement of water resources and water environmental sustainability is of great significance to regional water management. This study evaluates ecological footprint, ecological carrying capacity and ecological pressure index of "water quantity" and "water quality" in 31 provinces and regions in China. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, water resources ecological pressure index of China was less than 1, with the highest value of 0.86 which indicates water resources supply being sufficient and sustainable. Water quantity ecological footprint per ten thousand Yuan GDP showed a fluctuating downward trend and water use efficiency increased significantly. (2) From 2000 to 2020, water quality in China was relatively sustainable and in a safe state, while ecological surplus of water quality was about 200 million hm2. Per capita water quality carrying capacity is about twice the ecological footprint. And the amount of sewage generated by ten thousand yuan of GDP shows a decreasing trend. (3) Spatial centers of per capita and ten thousand GDP "water quantity" ecological footprint are both located in Gansu Province. The high value areas of water quantity and water quality ecological footprint are mainly located in the northwest of the Huhuanyong Line, while the high value areas of water capacity are mainly located in Tibetan Plateau and southern China. (4) The proportions of areas with safe, critical and unsafe water quantity sustainability are 55%, 6% and 39%, respectively, and the numbers of areas with safe, critical and unsafe water quality sustainability account for 61%, 3% and 35%, respectively. The ratio of the number of areas with strong and weak water sustainable is about 6:4. The results reveal the regional differences in water quantity and water quality risk in China, which helps to provide a scientific basis for the utilization of water resources and water pollution prevention.