高寒地区煤矿排土场植被恢复研究--以内蒙古扎哈淖尔煤矿为例
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1.华东师范大学生态与环境科学学院;2.中国科学院大学;3.中国科学院城市环境研究所

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Plant rehabilitation at dump sites of open-pit mine in alpine region—A case study of Inner Mongolia Zhahanaoer Mine
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1.School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University;2.Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences

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    摘要:

    高寒煤矿排土场植被恢复是制约我国矿区绿色可持续发展亟待解决问题,内蒙古扎哈淖尔煤矿通过不同的生态措施对排土场进行人工植被恢复的实践。本研究在2020年和2021年对该高寒煤矿排土场75个样地进行野外连续监测,对不同生态恢复措施影响高寒地区内蒙古扎哈淖尔露天煤矿排土场植物恢复过程中的群落组成、盖度、物种多样性进行分析,阐明不同恢复措施在高寒地区煤矿排土场植被恢复中的作用。研究结果表明:从2020年到2021年排土场的植物群落物种数、植被盖度和群落多样性存在显著的季节变化规律;周边原生草原的非人工种植植物随恢复时间增加而不断进入排土场,导致群落物种数显著增加;植物群落多样性在平面、坡面与田字格地形存在显著差异,田字格上Shannon-Wiener多样性指数最低;坡度显著影响群落多样性,同时受到季节变化影响;喷播加灌木种植方式与其他4种播种方式相比显著增加群落香浓维纳多样性指数;但不同坡向、土壤施肥方式和水分灌溉方式对植物群落多样性没有显著影响。本研究结果可为完善草原露天煤矿植被恢复技术提供科学依据。

    Abstract:

    Plant rehabilitation at dump sites in alpine region is the critical issue for the sustainable development of open pit mine in China. Several artificial restoration measures were applied for plant rehabilitation in Inner Mongolia Zhahanaoer Mine. Field investigations and monitoring were continually carried out at 75 sample plots at dump site of open-pit mine of Zhahanaoer from 2021 to 2022. We analyzed plant community composition, plant cover and biodiversity. Results showed that there are significant seasonal and annual variation pattern for plant growth. The increasing plant species number with increasing restoration period may due to the coming non-planting plant species from around grassland. There are significant higher biodiversity in flat and slope topography than that of in “Tianzige”. There was significant effect of slope degree on diversity, which varied with seasonal change. Plant biodiversity by spray seedling plus shrub method was significantly higher than those of other three methods. However, there were no significant differences of plant biodiversity in slope aspect, soil fertilization and irrigation treatments, respectively. Our results could contribute to the scientific evidences for plant rehabilitation of the dump sites of open pit mine in alpine region.

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吴翊平,冯嘉懿,田 野.高寒地区煤矿排土场植被恢复研究--以内蒙古扎哈淖尔煤矿为例.生态学报,,(). http://dx. doi. org/10.5846/stxb202202090317

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