亚热带常绿阔叶林和杉木人工林有机碳流失动态特征对降雨的响应
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国家自然科学基金项目(32101495);福建省公益类科研院所专项(2020R1002004)


Responses of organic carbon loss dynamics to rainfall in the evergreen broad-leaved forest and Cunninghamia lanceolate plantation in subtropical China
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The National Natural Science Foundation of China(32101495), Special Projects for Public Welfare Research Institutes in Fujian Province(2020R1002004)

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    摘要:

    揭示亚热带森林土壤有机碳流失规律是制定相应措施以巩固和维持森林生态系统碳汇的关键。然而已有研究存在的监测对象单一、频率过低、时间过短等问题,导致对这一规律的认识仍然不足。选择亚热带典型的常绿阔叶林和杉木人工林为研究对象,每次降雨过后监测其径流量、泥沙量,分析径流和泥沙中的可溶性有机碳(Dissolved organic carbon,DOC)含量以及颗粒有机碳(Particle organic carbon,POC)含量。旨在比较两种森林DOC和POC流失量的差异,并分析二者与降雨量、降雨强度、5 min最大雨强和降雨侵蚀力四个降雨特征值的关联。拟验证以下两个问题:(1)杉木人工林的DOC和POC流失量是否高于常绿阔叶林;(2)降雨侵蚀力对DOC和POC的解释是否优于降雨量、降雨强度和5 min最大雨强。研究结果发现常绿阔叶林径流量、泥沙量、径流水中DOC浓度和POC浓度、DOC和POC流失量均显著高于杉木人工林。回归分析表明常绿阔叶林和杉木人工林DOC和POC流失量与降雨量、降雨强度和降雨侵蚀力呈显著的线性或幂函数相关,其中降雨量与DOC和POC流失量之间的拟合关系最优。常绿阔叶林产流和产沙量高于杉木人工林可能与前者的林下植被生物量较低有关,前者径流水中DOC浓度和POC浓度较高可归因于其较高的总生物量和土壤有机碳含量。在未来森林经营过程中应合理管理林下植被,尽量减少和避免林下植被的抚育伐,从而能够降低有机碳的水土流失,达到巩固和维持森林碳汇的目的。在未来气候变暖导致降水变化背景下,利用降雨量作为预测指标能够较好评估我国亚热带森林有机碳流失的风险。

    Abstract:

    Unravelling the dynamics of soil organic carbon loss induced by soil erosion in subtropical forest is the key to formulate specific measures to maintain and improve forest carbon sink. Prior studies tend to measure the erosion-induced carbon loss of one specific forest type with a very low frequency over a short observing period, which fails us to comprehensively understand the erosion induced soil organic carbon loss in the forest. In this study, we measured runoff depth and sediment, and assayed dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the runoff and particle organic carbon (POC) concentration in the sediment in the evergreen broad-leaved forest and Cunninghamia lanceolate plantation. We tried to compare the differences of DOC and POC losses in the evergreen broad-leaved forest and Cunninghamia lanceolate plantation, and to analyze the relation of the erosion-induced DOC and POC losses with rainfall depth, rainfall intensity, the maximum 5-minutes intensity, and rainfall erosivity? Our study tried to answer the following two questions:(1) are erosion-induced DOC and POC losses in the Cunninghamia lanceolate plantation higher than those losses in the evergreen broad-leaved forest? (2) is rainfall depth a better variable than rainfall intensity, the maximum 5-minutes intensity, and rainfall erosivity in explaining the variation of erosion-induced DOC and POC losses. Our results showed that the runoff depth, sediment, runoff DOC and sediment POC concentration, DOC and POC flux in the evergreen broad-leaved forest were all significantly higher than those in the Cunninghamia lanceolate plantation. Regression analysis showed that the DOC and POC flux in both evergreen broad-leaved forest and Cunninghamia lanceolate plantation were either linearly or exponentially associated with rainfall depth, rainfall intensity, and rainfall erosivity. The goodness-of-fit of those regressions in both the evergreen broad-leaved forest and Cunninghamia lanceolate plantation was the highest for rainfall depth. The higher runoff depth and sediment in the evergreen broad-leaved forest than Cunninghamia lanceolate plantation may be ascribed to its lower understory vegetation biomass. The higher runoff DOC and sediment POC concentration in the evergreen broad-leaved forest may be a result of higher overall aboveground biomass and soil organic carbon concentration. Our results highlight that future forest management should manage understory vegetation via avoiding or reducing slashing so that the erosion-induced carbon loss in the forest will decrease. Under the scenario of climate change-induced precipitation change, rainfall depth can be used as a predictive variable to evaluate and forecast future erosion-induced carbon loss in subtropical forests.

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王韦韦,吕茂奎,胥超,陈光水.亚热带常绿阔叶林和杉木人工林有机碳流失动态特征对降雨的响应.生态学报,2023,43(18):7474~7484

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