秸秆覆盖配施氮肥条件下根际土真菌群落及其与小麦产量关系的研究
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四川农业大学农学院/农业部西南作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室

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Relationship between rhizosphere fungal community and wheat yield under straw mulching combined with nitrogen fertilizer
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College of Agronomy,Sichuan Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Crop Eco-Physiology and Farming System in Southwest China,Ministry of Agriculture

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    摘要:

    为研究秸秆覆盖与施氮条件下土壤真菌群落变化及其驱动因素与冬小麦产量的关系,试验采用二因素裂区设计,主区为秸秆覆盖(SM)和不覆盖(NSM);副区为两种施氮量0(N0)和180(N1)kg/hm2。于小麦开花期采集土壤样品测定土壤养分及采用Illumina Miseq高通量测序技术分析根际真菌群落结构和多样性。结果表明,SM较NSM处理小麦产量提高40.3%,差异显著。NSMN1较NSMN0处理小麦产量显著提高75%;SMN1处理比SMN0处理小麦产量显著提高92%。SM处理较NSM处理土壤有机碳(SOC)、全氮(TN)、碱解氮(AN)、氨态氮(NH4+-N)、速效磷(AP)和速效钾(AK)的含量显著增加,土壤硝态氮(NO3--N)含量降低。无论秸秆覆盖与否,施氮显著提高了土壤TN、AN、NH4+-N、NO3--N、AP和AK的含量。秸秆覆盖根际真菌群落多样性(Chao1与Shannon指数)增加;施氮则降低其多样性。SM处理较NSM处理显著增加担子菌门(Basidiomycota)和降低被孢霉门(Mortierellomycota)的相对丰度,子囊菌门(Ascomycota)的相对丰度无显著差异。在NSM条件下,施氮显著增加子囊菌门的相对丰度,担子菌门与被孢霉门相对丰度显著降低;在SM条件下,施氮处理显著降低子囊菌门和增加担子菌门的相对丰度,被孢霉门的相对丰度降低,但无显著差异。在属水平上,SM处理较NSM处理显著增加光盖伞属(Psilocybe)、弯孢菌属(Curvularia)和黑孢霉属(Nigrospora)的相对丰度,被孢霉属(Mortierella)、球腔菌属(Mycosphaerella)、帚枝霉属(Sarocladium)、镰刀菌属(Fusarium)和柱霉属(Scytalidium)的相对丰度显著降低,蛋白单胞属(Pyrenochaetopsis)的相对丰度无显著差异。NSMN1较NSMN0处理显著增加球腔菌属、弯孢菌属和帚枝霉属的相对丰度,显著降低被孢霉属和柱霉属的相对丰度;SMN1比SMN0处理显著增加光盖伞属、弯孢菌属、帚枝霉属和柱霉属的相对丰度,被孢霉属相对丰度显著降低。LEfSe分析,球腔菌属、弯孢菌属和光盖伞属是秸秆覆盖配施氮肥的关键真菌菌属。基于冗余分析,土壤SOC、AK、AP、AN、TN与NH4+-N含量对真菌群落结构有显著或者极显著的影响。进一步分析表明,在秸秆覆盖配施氮肥条件下光盖伞属、柱霉属和弯孢菌属与小麦产量相关。综上,秸秆覆盖配施氮肥有助于提高土壤养分有效性和小麦产量,利于优化土壤真菌群落结构,对四川丘陵旱地提升土壤肥力和作物生产力具有重要意义。

    Abstract:

    In order to study the relationship between changes of soil fungal communities and its driving factors and winter wheat yield under straw mulching and nitrogen application, we adopted a split-plot field experiment that the main factor included no straw mulching (NSM) and straw mulching (SM), and two nitrogen application rates of 0 (N0) and 180 (N1) kg/hm2 were used as the sub-factor. Soil samples were collected during wheat anthesis. We measured soil nutrients and analyzed the community structure and diversity of rhizosphere fungi by Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that wheat yield of straw mulching (SM) treatment was increased significantly by 40.3% than that of non-mulched (NSM) treatment. NSMN1 treatment significantly increased wheat yield by 75%, compared to NSMN0. SMN1 treatment significantly increased wheat yield by 92% compared to SMN0. SM treatment significantly increased the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK), but the soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) content was reduced than that of NSM treatment. No matter whether straw was added or not, nitrogen application significantly increased the contents of soil TN, AN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, AP and AK. Straw mulching increased the Chao1 index and Shannon index of wheat rhizosphere fungi, while Chao1 index and Shannon index were decreased in N1. Compared with NSM treatment, SM treatment significantly increased the relative abundance of Basidiomycota and decreased the relative abundance of Mortierellomycota, but there was no significant difference in the relative abundance of Ascomycota. NSMN1 treatment significantly increased the relative abundance of Ascomycota, while the relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota decreased significantly. SMN1 treatment significantly decreased the relative abundance of Ascomycota and increased the relative abundance of Basidiomycota, the relative abundance of Mortierellomycota decreased, but the difference was not significant. At the genus level, SM treatment significantly increased the relative abundances of Psilocybe, Curvularia and Nigrospora, and significantly decreased the relative abundances of Mortierella, Mycosphaerella, Sarocladium, Fusarium and Scytalidium compared with NSM treatment, while the relative abundance of Pyrenochaetopsis had no significant difference. Compared with NSM0, NSMN1 significantly increased the relative abundances of Mycosphaerella, Curvularia. and Sarocladium, and significantly decreased the relative abundances of Mortierella and Scytalidium; SMN1 significantly increased the relative abundance of Psilocybe, Curvularia, Sarocladium, and Scytalidium, and significantly decreased the relative abundance of Mortierella compared to SMN0. LEfSe analysis showed that Psilocybe, Curvularia and Mycosphaerella were the key fungal genera for straw mulching combined with nitrogen fertilizer. Based on RDA, soil SOC, AK, AP, AN, TN and NH4+-N contents had significant or extremely significant effects on fungal community structure. Further analysis showed that Psilocybe, Curvularia and Scytalidium were associated with wheat yield under the conditions of straw mulching and nitrogen fertilization. In conclusion, straw mulching combined with nitrogen fertilizer is helpful to improve soil nutrient availability and wheat yield, and help optimize soil fungal community structure, which is of great significance for improving soil fertility and crop productivity in the hilly drylands of Sichuan.

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陈松鹤,向晓玲,雷芳,邹乔生,艾代龙,郑亭,黄秀兰,樊高琼.秸秆覆盖配施氮肥条件下根际土真菌群落及其与小麦产量关系的研究.生态学报,,(). http://dx. doi. org/10.5846/stxb202112143553

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