林火干扰对油松针叶林物种多样性与土壤理化性质的影响
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河北省自然科学基金面上项目(C2021204113);河北省教育厅重点项目(ZD2016132)


Effects of Forest Fire Disturbance on Species Diversity and Soil Physicochemical Properties in Pinus tabuliformis Coniferous Forests
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General project of Nature Fund of Hebei Province(C2021204113);Key project of Hebei Provincial Education Departmen(ZD2016132);

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    摘要:

    探究不同程度林火干扰对油松(Pinus tabuliformis)针叶次生林植物物种多样性特征与土壤理化性质的影响以及二者之间的关系,对灾后油松针叶次生林的可持续经营具有重要意义。采用典型样地调查法对山西省药林寺森林公园不同程度林火干扰后的油松次生林群落进行物种多样性分析,并测定土壤理化性质。结果表明:(1)在调查研究样方中共记录到维管植物38种,在不同程度林火干扰下物种种类表现为对照(CK) > 重度 > 中度。(2)乔木层的Simpson指数、Margalef指数与灌木层的α多样性指数在重度林火干扰后与CK相比显著升高;草本层的变化规律与灌木层相反。(3)样地群落稳定性表现为:中度 > CK > 重度。(4)在重度林火干扰后0-10cm土层中的含水率、有机质、全氮、碱解氮、速效磷含量与CK相比显著升高35.42%、102.89%、29.41%、21.67%、48.50%,10-20cm土层中的全氮、全磷、全钾、速效磷、速效钾含量与CK相比显著降低54.17%、28.94%、7.47%、1.74%、14.13%。(5)冗余分析结果表明:0-10cm土层中全氮、碱解氮、全磷及10-20cm土层中全氮、碱解氮、含水率能够更好的解释乔、灌、草本层物种多样性的差异。林火干扰后繁殖能力较强的物种占据优势种的地位;中度林火干扰使植被群落结构更具有稳定性;0-10cm土层与10-20cm土层中的含水率、有机质、碱解氮含量在林火干扰后显著增加,而全磷、全钾含量显著降低;在修复火灾迹地时,可通过调节对于物种多样性具有显著影响的土壤环境因子(如氮与磷)来促进林下植被群落的生长。

    Abstract:

    Exploring the effects of forest fire disturbance at different degree on plant species diversity characteristics and soil physicochemical properties in Pinus tabuliformis coniferous secondary forest and the relationship between the species diversity characteristics and soil physicochemical properties was important for the sustainable management of Pinus tabuliformis coniferous secondary forest after disasters. The species diversity and soil physicochemical properties of Pinus tabulaeformis secondary forest community after forest fire disturbance at different degree were analyzed by using typical plot survey method in Yaolin Temple Forest Park, Shanxi Province. The results showed that:(1) A total of 38 species of vascular plants were recorded in the survey and study sample. The species number showed control check (CK) >severe>medium under different levels of forest fire disturbance. (2) The Simpson index and Margalef index of tree layer and α diversity index of shrub layer were significantly increased compared with CK after severe forest fire disturbance. The pattern of change in the herbaceous layer was opposite to that of the shrub layer. (3) The stability of the community in the sample plot was moderate > CK > severe. (4) The moisture content, organic matter content, total N content, hydrolysable N content and available P content in 0-10 cm soil layer significantly increased by 35.42%, 102.89%, 29.41%, 21.67% and 48.50% compared with CK after severe forest fire disturbance. The total N content, total P content, total K content, available P content and available K content in 10-20 cm soil layer significantly decreased by 54.17%, 28.94%, 7.47%, 1.74% and 14.13% compared with CK after severe forest fire disturbance.(5) The results of the redundancy analysis showed that total N, hydrolysable N, total P in the 0-10 cm layer soil and total N, hydrolysable N, water content in the 10-20 cm layer soil can better explain the differences in species diversity in the tree, shrub and herb layers. The species with strongly reproductive ability after forest fire disturbance occupied the dominant position. The vegetation community structure was more stable after moderate forest fire disturbance. The moisture content, organic matter content and hydrolysable N content in the 0-10cm and 10-20cm soil layers increased significantly after forest fire disturbance, while total P content and total K content decreased significantly. The growth of understory vegetation community can be promoted by adjusting soil environmental factors (such as N and P) which have significant influence on species diversity in the restoration of fire areas.

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赵蔓,张晓曼,杨明洁.林火干扰对油松针叶林物种多样性与土壤理化性质的影响.生态学报,2023,43(18):7412~7421

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