不同群落结构风景游憩林生态保健效应--以北京西山国家森林公园为例
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1.国际竹藤中心 国家林业和草原局/北京市共建竹藤科学与技术重点实验室;2.北京市园林绿化科学研究院

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Ecological health care effects of scenic recreational forests with different community structures : a case study of Beijing Xishan National Forest Park
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International Centre for Bamboo and Rattan

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    摘要:

    风景游憩林是城市森林的重要组成部分,具有减菌、降噪、滞尘、释氧及调节人体舒适度等生态保健效应,探索具有良好综合生态保健效应的景观模式对游憩林的建设和管理尤显重要。以北京西山国家森林公园乔-灌-草、乔-草和灌-草等9种不同群落结构风景游憩林为研究对象,通过野外监测和室内分析相结合等方法,研究了空气负离子浓度、PM2.5浓度及消减率、噪音消减率、减菌率及人体舒适度的动态变化,分析了温度、湿度、风速等环境因子对生态保健效应的影响,运用综合指数法对生态保健效应进行定量评价。结果表明:(1)空气负离子浓度年变化范围为296.67—1090.00 个/cm3, 乔-灌-草结构年均最高,为(755.62±110.11) 个/cm3,灌-草结构最低为(637.53±121.90) 个/cm3;(2)PM2.5浓度年变化范围为6.83—63.04 μg/m3,且夏季<秋季<春季<冬季,乔-灌-草结构对PM2.5消减率最大(10.95%),灌-草结构最低(1.17%);(3)噪音消减率随着距离的增加均有一个最佳消减场,不同群落结构平均减噪率表现为乔-灌-草>乔-草>灌-草;(4)减菌率变化范围为11.65%—44.60%,且乔-灌-草>乔-草>灌-草;(5)乔-草结构人体舒适度最好,灌-草结构最弱;(6)PM2.5浓度和温度呈负相关,与湿度和风速呈正相关,细菌数量与温度、湿度、风速均呈正相关,噪音与温度、风速呈正相关,与湿度呈负相关,空气负离子浓度与湿度和风速呈负相关;(7)生态保健效应综合指数范围为1.6565—9.1387,总体排序乔-灌-草>乔-草>灌-草。北京风景游憩林的建设,在群落结构上以乔-灌-草为宜,在树种选择上优先考虑油松、刺槐、侧柏等具有生态保健效应的乡土树种。

    Abstract:

    The scenic recreational forest is an important part of the urban forest. It has ecological health care functions which include bacteria reduction, noise reduction, dust retention, oxygen release, and adjustment of human comfort. For the development and administration of the recreational forest, understanding how to explore a landscape model with an exceptional and comprehensive ecological health care effect is extremely crucial. This study took 9 kinds of scenic recreation forests with different community structures, including arbor-shrub-grass, arbor-grass and shrub-grass in Beijing Xishan National Forest Park as the research object. We investigated the dynamic changes in air anion concentration, PM2.5 concentration and reduction rate, noise reduction rate, bacteria reduction rate, and human comfort using a combination of field monitoring, interior analysis, and the complete index approach. This study analyzed the effects to ecological health care of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and wind speed, which used the comprehensive index method to quantitatively evaluate the effect of ecological health care. The results showed that: (1) the annual variation range of air anion concentration was 296.67—1090.00 con/cm3, the air anion concentration of tree-shrub-grass structure was the highest (755.62±110.11 con/cm3), and the shrub-grass structure was the lowest one (637.53±121.90 con/cm3). (2) The annual variation range of PM2.5 concentration was 6.83—63.04 μg/m3, and the order of concentration value was summer < autumn < spring < winter, the reduction rate of PM2.5 by the arbor-shrub-grass structure was the largest (10.95%), and reduction rate of PM2.5 by shrub-grass structure was the lowest (1.17%). (3) There was an optimal noise reduction field with the increase of distance, and the average noise reduction rate of different community structures was as follows: arbor-shrub-grass > arbor-grass > shrub-grass. (4) The range of bacteria reduction rate was 11.65%—44.60%, and arbor-shrub-grass > arbor-grass > shrub-grass. (5) The comfort index of the arbor-grass structure was 8.83 and that of the shrub-grass structure was 9.06. (6) The number of bacteria was strongly connected with temperature, humidity, and wind speed; PM2.5 concentration was negatively correlated with temperature, but positively correlated with humidity and wind speed; Temperature and wind speed were favorably connected with noise, while the humidity was adversely correlated; Humidity and wind speed have a negative relationship with air anion concentration. (7) The comprehensive index of ecological health care effect ranged from 1.6565 to 9.1387, and the overall order was arbor-shrub-grass > arbor-grass > shrub-grass. For the construction of scenic recreational forest in Beijing, it is appropriate to take arbor-shrub-grass as the community structure, give priority to local tree species with ecological health care effects such as Pinus tabulaeformis, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Platycladus orientalis in the selection of tree species.

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杨 畅,王月容,汤志颖,王 茜,段敏杰,漆良华.不同群落结构风景游憩林生态保健效应--以北京西山国家森林公园为例.生态学报,,(). http://dx. doi. org/10.5846/stxb202109302752

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