黑龙江省老爷岭南部穆棱林区马鹿种群分布数量及生境适宜性评价
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黑龙江省省属科研院所科研业务费项目(CZKYF2021B002);牡丹江师范学院科研项目(kjcx2021-083mdjnu,GP2021005,MQP201405)


Population size and habitat suitability evaluation of wapiti (Cervus canadensis xanthopygus) in Muling forest area, southern Laoyeling, Heilongjiang Province, China
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    摘要:

    开展野生动物种群分布数量和生境适宜性评价研究是制定物种科学保护决策的基础和关键。以东北马鹿(Cervus canadensis xanthopygus)为研究对象,于2015-2020年在黑龙江省老爷岭南部穆棱林区,采用大样方调查方法收集马鹿在雪地留下的足迹信息分析马鹿种群数量;通过相机监测、足迹链跟踪和大样方调查3种方法综合收集马鹿活动点信息,利用最大熵(MaxEnt)建模分析马鹿生境适宜性。马鹿种群分布数量研究结果表明,穆棱林区马鹿种群密度为(0.0645±0.009)只/km2,种群数量为47-61只,主要分布在研究地区南部的和平、龙爪沟和共和林场。生境分析结果表明:人为干扰因子中,居民区对MaxEnt模型的贡献率为44%,马鹿主要在距居民区距离约5 km和10-15 km的区域活动,在偏僻的林间小道和乡村道路马鹿生境适宜性较高,其对模型贡献率分别为16.8%和10.2%;植被因子中,在距常绿针叶林和针阔混交林距离4 km范围内,随距离增加马鹿生境适宜性逐渐降低。生境适宜性分析结果表明,研究地区马鹿适宜生境和次适宜生境面积为87.09 km2,仅占研究区域的10.39%,主要集中分布于研究区域的东南部,而西北部的适宜生境较少,且破碎化严重。研究认为,老爷岭南部穆棱林区马鹿种群密度低、数量少主要受马鹿种群基数小和适宜生境面积少两方面的限制。因此,在未来马鹿种群保护恢复的过程中,应有针对性地加强对马鹿重点分布区域西南部和西北部的生境恢复,西南部生境修复有利于研究地区与吉林省天桥岭林区2个隔离分布区之间马鹿种群进行基因交流,西北部生境修复有利于增加马鹿种群恢复需求的适宜生境面积。对穆棱林区马鹿种群实施保护和对关键区域不适宜生境进行修复意义重大,亦为满足该区域分布的东北虎(Panthera tigris altaica)和东北豹(Panthera pardus orientalis)对猎物资源的需求有着重要意义。

    Abstract:

    Studying wild animal populations and their habitat suitability is fundamental to their conservation and recovery. To understand the population size, distribution and habitat suitability of wapiti (Cervus canadensis xanthopygus) in the Muling forest area of southern Laoyeling in Heilongjiang Province, China, we conducted field surveys from 2015 to 2020. The population density and number of wapiti were calculated by collecting wapiti footprint data from snow-covered ground using sample plot surveys. Three datasets, collected by camera traps, footprint tracking and sample plot surveys, were used to analyze habitat quality with the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling method. The results showed that the population density of wapiti in the study area was 0.0645±0.009 individuals/km2, and the population size was 47-61 individuals. The wapiti population mainly distributed in Heping Forest Farm, Longzhuagou Forest Farm and Gonghe Forest Farm in the southern study area. The results of the habitat evaluation showed that, among the human disturbance factors, the comprehensive contribution rate of residential areas to the model was 44%, and wapiti were mainly distributed within approximately 5 km to 10-15 km from residential areas. Remote forest trails and village roads had positive effects on habitat suitability for wapiti, and their contribution to the model was 16.8% and 10.2%, respectively. The occurrence probability of wapiti on forest trails was higher than in other areas. Among the vegetation factors, evergreen coniferous forest and theropencedrymion were the main factors affecting the distribution of suitable habitat for wapiti. When the distance between evergreen coniferous forest and theropencedrymion was less than 4 km, the occurrence probability of wapiti decreased gradually with the increase of distance. The results of the habitat evaluation showed that the total area of high suitable and medium habitats were 87.09 km2, accounting for only 10.39% of the study area, mainly distributed in the southeast, while the suitable habitats in the northwest of the study area were fewer and highly fragmented. The area of unsuitable habitat was 640.69 km2, which accounted for 76.45% of the study area and was mainly distributed in the northeast. We conclude that the low wapiti population density in the Muling forest area in the southern Laoyeling Mountains is the result of a small population base and the lack of suitable habitat. Therefore, to restore the wapiti population in the future, we should strengthen the restoration of the main areas of wapiti distribution, namely the southwest and northwest parts of the study area. The restoration of habitat in the southwest forestry parts of the study area will contribute to population expansion and gene exchange with the wapiti population of the Tianqiaoling forest region in Jilin Province. Habitat restoration in the northwestern region will be conducive to increasing the range of suitable habitat. Scientific conservation of wapiti populations and restoration of unsuitable habitats in key areas are of great significance for the development of these populations, and for meeting the prey resource needs of Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) in the Muling forest area.

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田新民,陈红,钟林强,黄海娇,刘小慧,张子栋,杨孟平,周绍春.黑龙江省老爷岭南部穆棱林区马鹿种群分布数量及生境适宜性评价.生态学报,2022,42(14):5980~5989

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