大兴安岭南段马鹿生境适宜性分析与生态廊道构建
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赤峰市林业科技振兴计划项目


Habitat suitability analysis and ecological corridor designs for red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the southern Greater Khingan Mountains
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    摘要:

    构建生态廊道在缓解生境破碎化对生物多样性的影响、维持濒危物种的遗传多样性、维护自然生态系统结构完整与功能稳定方面具有重要作用。以内蒙古大兴安岭南段分布的马鹿(Cervus elaphus)种群为研究对象,利用MaxEnt模型对其生境适宜性进行分析,并利用最小累积阻力模型构建潜在生态扩散廊道,探讨大兴安岭南段区域隔离马鹿种群的栖息地连通方案。结果显示,马鹿栖息地呈破碎化状态,种群有明显的隔离分布趋势,现有适宜栖息地具有海拔较低(800-1200 m)、坡度较缓(<15°)、靠近水源、植被类型多为靠近山林的灌丛或草地等特点。所构建12条生态廊道具有经过河流浅水节段、远离村落等特点,便于落实栖息地生态恢复管理措施。研究从区域尺度综合分析了大兴安岭南段马鹿栖息地现状及连通性,有助于优化适宜栖息地格局,促进马鹿扩散和栖息地连通,为该物种隔离种群及其栖息地保护规划提供现实指导和基础资料。

    Abstract:

    Effectively designed ecological corridors can eliminate the impact of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity, promote gene flow and the genetic diversity of endangered species, and maintain the structural integrity and functional stability of natural ecosystems. In this study, we used the MaxEnt model to analyze habitat suitability for red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the southern Greater Khingan Mountains, Inner Mongolia. We created a minimum cumulative resistance model to identify potentially ecological corridors for red deer. Results showed that red deer habitats in the study area were fragmented. The red deer population had an obvious trend of isolation distribution; the existing suitable habitats were characterized by low elevation (800-1200 m) and a gentle slope (<15°) close to a water source, and the suitable habitats mostly consisted of forest shrub or grassland vegetation close to woodland edges. The creation of 12 ecological corridors would encourage red deer dispersal and support habitat connectivity. Three main characteristics of the corridors that were conducive to habitat restoration management measures include-passing through shallow rivers, irregular topography, and being located far away from human residences. The comprehensive analysis of habitat suitability and ecological corridors from a large-scale perspective may help optimize red deer habitat distribution. The analysis can provide practical guidance and basic information for the conservation of the species in the southern Greater Khingan Mountains.

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滕扬,张沼,张书理,杨永昕,贺伟,王娜,张正一,鲍伟东.大兴安岭南段马鹿生境适宜性分析与生态廊道构建.生态学报,2022,42(14):5990~6000

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