As a critical zone of sea-land interaction, coastal marine ecosystem can not only provide food, water, energy, goods and living space for human beings, but also provide ecosystem services such as culture, entertainment and leisure. It is a spatial carrier of important transportation and trade infrastructure, which is of great ecological, economic and social significance. With the rapid industrialization and urbanization, the dense population in coastal areas and the frequent exchange of matter and energy make coastal ecosystems extremely sensitive and vulnerable to climate change and pollution. Due to the combined effects of human activities and climate change, emerging ecological problems have caused the decline of coastal water quality, the decrease of coastal biodiversity, and the change of biological community structure. At the same time, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely found in coastal zones around the world. As a series of man-made persistent organic compounds, PFASs were proved to have potential developmental toxicity, immune toxicity, and reproductive toxicity. They are difficult to degrade in the natural environment, and can accumulate and amplify in marine organisms along the food chain, posing a health risk to humans. With the rapid development of fluorinated chemical industry in China, the continuous replacement of new type of PFASs together with the aggravation of climate change, the impact of PFASs on coastal ecosystem is facing great uncertainty. It is of vital importance to maintain the sustainable management of the coastal marine ecosystem by improving legislation, carrying out nationwide monitoring of PFASs, controlling over pollutants discharge, and establishing an integrated coastal zone management mechanism.