生态创新系统功能、过程和可持续评估
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国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(41801214);中国科学院发展规划局战略研究专项(GHJ-ZLZX-2019-15)


Function, process and sustainability evaluation of eco-innovation systems
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National Natural Science Foundation of China (Youth Science Fund Project)

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    摘要:

    不同国家生态创新水平有高低,生态创新系统有差异。生态创新系统是由一系列参与者通过相互作用形成的网络,目的是推动有助于生态环境和社会经济协调发展的知识和技术的生产、传播和应用。为比较不同国家生态创新系统的发展状况和可持续性,分析不同国家生态创新系统的优势和不足,提出生态创新系统两步评估法和整体分析框架。把生态创新系统的功能和过程结合起来,对生态创新系统的发展水平进行评价。重点关注系统的长期发展,即系统可持续性。基于资本的角度,包括知识、经济、人力和社会资本,建立生态创新系统可持续评估模型,考察相关资本存量、流量和风险因素。根据创新系统理论、文献回顾和国际研究比较,遴选出30个关键指标,构建涵盖2个指标矩阵的综合评价指标体系。采用主成分分析和综合评价方法,对不同国家生态创新系统的功能-过程和可持续性分别进行评价。研究表明,法国、德国、韩国、西班牙和挪威生态创新系统的功能-过程表现最强,韩国、德国、奥地利、挪威、捷克生态创新系统的可持续性表现最强。根据生态创新系统的现状和可持续性,主要生态创新国家可以分为四种类型,据此采用不同发展策略。如韩国系统现状水平和可持续性都较高,属于生态创新先进国。西班牙现状水平较高但可持续性较弱,需要加大对生态创新系统的投入。土耳其系统现状水平和可持续性都较弱,荷兰系统现状水平和可持续性较均衡。土耳其除加大资本投入外,还要加强创新系统功能的提升和创新过程的优化。研究在完善生态创新系统功能和过程一体化评价的同时,弥补当前生态创新系统可持续性研究缺乏的不足。同时,评估结果为各国生态创新系统的优化提升、相关生态创新政策的出台提供研究基础和数据支撑。

    Abstract:

    The development of eco-innovation varies across different countries, as does the development of eco-innovation systems. Eco-innovation system is a network system formed by a series of participants through interaction. The purpose of eco-innovation system is to improve the production, diffusion and application of knowledge and technology conducive to coordinating ecological conservation, environmental protection and socio-economic development. To compare and analysis quantitatively the development and sustainability of eco-innovation systems in major advanced countries, as well as to describe and analysis the advantages and disadvantages in these innovation systems more precisely, this paper proposes a two-step model and an overall framework to evaluate eco-innovation systems. Firstly, the study combines function and process assessments to evaluate the development level of eco-innovation system. Secondly, the study focuses on the long-term development of the systems, namely system sustainability. A model evaluating the sustainability from the perspective of capital, which includes knowledge capital, economic capital, human capital and social capital, is exploited. The stock, flow and risk factors of these capitals are considered as well. Based on the theory of innovation system, literature review, and comparison of international research, 30 key indicators are selected, and a complicated indicator system involved two index matrices are construed. Principal component analysis and comprehensive evaluation are used to evaluate the function-process and sustainability of eco-innovation systems in different countries. The results show that France, Germany, South Korea, Spain and Norway exhibit strong performance in terms of eco-innovation system function and system process. The eco-innovation systems of South Korea, Germany, Austria, Norway and Czech Republic have the best sustainable performance. According to the development and sustainability of their eco-innovation systems, the countries can be classified into four groups, and different strategies can be adopted accordingly. South Korea is an eco-innovation leader, and its system has strong performance and sustainability. The system of Spain has high development but weak sustainability, and it is necessary to increase investment in eco-innovation. Turkey has weak performance and weak sustainability, while the two aspects of Netherland are relatively balanced. In addition to increasing capital investment, Turkey should also strengthen the improvement of system functions and the optimization of innovation process. The research not only improves the integrated evaluations of the function and the process of innovation systems, but also makes up for research on sustainability. Moreover, the results provide a scientific basis and data to support the improvement of eco-innovation systems and the introduction of relevant eco-innovation policies in these countries.

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李力.生态创新系统功能、过程和可持续评估.生态学报,2022,42(12):4784~4794

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