松嫩平原不同生境蝴蝶群落多样性及其保护建议
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国家重点研发计划(2022YFF1300605);"111"引智基地项目(B16011);生态环境部生物多样性保护专项(SDZXWJZ1011)


Diversity of butterfly communities in different habitats in Songnen Plain and conservation suggestions
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    摘要:

    随着气候变化加剧和人类活动影响,生物多样性变化及其保护逐渐受到广泛关注。蝴蝶作为开花植物的传粉媒介和生态环境监测及评价的关键指示者,其多样性变化能够在一定程度上反映生境状况,因此,有必要清晰认识不同生境中的蝴蝶多样性变化。为明确松嫩平原蝴蝶资源和不同生境的群落多样性差异,采用样线法于2016年5月-2018年8月对松嫩平原的割草草地、湿地、农田、放牧利用草地及恢复草地共五种生境类型进行调查研究。结果发现,调查共记录蝴蝶5108头,隶属于6科21属26种,其中牧女珍眼蝶(Coenonympha amaryllis)和红珠灰蝶(Plebejus argyrognomon)为优势种类,分别占蝴蝶个体总数的25.61%和31.66%,且在五种生境类型中均有分布。不同生境类型中,蝴蝶群落的物种丰富度指数和均匀度指数无明显差异,而恢复草地生境的蝴蝶群落Shannon-Wiener多样性指数较高,优势度指数较低。农田生境中的蝴蝶个体数量较少,且群落组成与其他四种生境之间均具有显著差异。五种生境类型中的蝴蝶数量和多样性均呈现一定的月动态和年动态变化趋势。除湿地和农田外,其余三种生境中蝴蝶物种和个体数量从5月到8月均持续升高。四种生境的蝴蝶物种数量、个体数量(除农田外)在2018年均出现明显下降趋势。物种丰富度指数等指标的月动态和年动态在不同生境类型间存在较大差异。这些结果表明,生境类型和人类活动与蝴蝶多样性变化关系密切,表现为单一生境中蝴蝶多样性较低,复杂生境有利于保护蝴蝶多样性。本研究有助于厘清松嫩平原蝴蝶资源的基础数据,并为该地区蝴蝶多样性保护和利用及评估该区域生态环境提供一定理论支撑。

    Abstract:

    With the intensification of climate change and human activities, the change and conservation strategy of biodiversity is increasingly paid more attention. Considering as important pollination vectors of flowering plants and a key ecological indicator for monitoring and evaluating environmental conditions, the changes in butterfly diversity could significantly reflect habitat status to a certain extent. Therefore, it is necessary to clearly understand alterations in butterfly diversity between different habitat types. To clarify butterfly species and differences in butterfly diversity between different habitat types in Songnen Plain, this study was conducted to investigate and sample butterflies in five habitat types, including mown grassland, wetland, farmland, grazed grassland and restored grassland using transect method from May 2016 to August 2018 in Songnen Plain. Results showed that a total of 5108 butterfly individuals were recorded, belonging to 26 species of 21 genera and 6 families, of which Coenonympha amaryllis and Plebejus argyrognomon were the dominant species. They accounted for 25.61% and 31.66% of the total number of butterflies, respectively, and were distributed in all five habitat types. The species richness index and evenness index of butterfly communities among the five habitat types were not significantly different, but Shannon-Wiener index in the restored grassland habitat was higher than that of the other four habitat types, and the dominance index was lower. There were fewer butterfly individuals in the farmland habitat, and significant differences in butterfly community composition between farmland and the other four habitat types also were found. From the perspective of quantitative properties with time, there were annual and monthly dynamic changes in butterfly abundance and species richness in the five habitat types. The results found that species richness and abundance of butterfly in the three grassland types, including mown grassland, grazed grassland, and restored grassland increased from May to August, except wetland habitat and farmland habitat. In 2018, butterfly species richness and abundance in mown grassland, wetland, and grazed and restored grasslands decreased, compared to 2016 and 2017. Significant differences in the monthly and annual dynamics of species richness and diversity index of butterfly community among five habitat types were detected in Songnen Plain. These results suggest that change in butterfly diversity is closely related with habitat types and human activity, with lower butterfly diversity in simple habitat, and it is favor for conservation in butterfly diversity in complex habitat. The finding from this study is helpful to clarify essential data of butterflies in Songnen Plain, and provides theoretical support for conservation and utilization of butterfly diversity, and assessment of ecological environment in this area.

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段明祎,朱慧,曲叶宽,王文慧,姜斯琪,袁轲,任炳忠.松嫩平原不同生境蝴蝶群落多样性及其保护建议.生态学报,2023,43(18):7682~7692

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