基于多类型自然保护地整合优化的国家公园综合监测体系构建
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国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0506404);国家自然科学基金项目(41801204)


Establishing a comprehensive monitoring system in national parks based on the integration and optimization of multiple types of protected areas
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    摘要:

    随着我国自然保护事业进入新时代,以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系建设思路得以明确,以国家公园为代表的自然保护地监测工作也被赋予了更高的要求。监测在促进国家公园科学规划与管理中发挥着重要作用,国家公园管理目标的实现离不开可靠的监测数据和信息的支撑。我国的国家公园试点由各类型自然保护地整合设立,因此面临不同监测类型之间的整合,存在缺乏统一的监测指标体系、有效的监测数据管理、健全的监测实施机制等问题。在对各类型自然保护地整合优化的基本思路下,基于国外国家公园监测实践与经验,综合考虑我国自然保护地的监测现状和需求,从顶层设计出发,构建了以自然资源清查为基础、以生态监测为核心、以自然与人为干扰监测为辅助、以管理有效性监测为补充并服务管理有效性评价的国家公园综合监测体系。在此基础上,进一步提出由三级监测网络、监测数据管理、管理有效性评价三部分组成的国家公园监测实施机制。在国家公园监测体系构建方面进行了探索与尝试,以期为我国国家公园监测体系以及监测制度的建立提供有益参考。

    Abstract:

    As the establishment of protected areas in China entered a new development stage, national parks have been recognized as the main body of a new system of protected areas. Realization of management objectives requires a large number of monitoring data and information, so the monitoring of national parks has been given great significance. However, the pilot national parks were established through integration of different types of protected areas, so they were facing the challenge of the integration of different types of monitoring. Specific problems include inconsistent monitoring indicator systems, ineffective monitoring data management, flawed monitoring implementation mechanism, and so on. Firstly, this paper analyzed the monitoring status and needs of protected areas in China and found that such problems existed in the monitoring of protected areas as different monitoring priorities, redundant monitoring data and diverse monitoring departments. Then, this paper sorted out the monitoring practice and experience of foreign national parks and found that most monitoring systems of national parks in other countries took the long-term ecological monitoring as the core, established a top-down monitoring implementation mechanism, designed a monitoring indicator system with both consistency and difference, and emphasized effective data management and utilization. Under the basic idea of integrating and optimizing various types of protected areas, learning from the monitoring practice and experience of foreign national parks, and considering the monitoring status and needs of protected areas in China, this paper constructed a comprehensive monitoring system for national parks in China from the top-level design. The system is based on natural resource inventory, centered on ecological monitoring, assisted by natural and human interference monitoring, and supplemented by management effectiveness monitoring that serves the evaluation of management effectiveness. The natural resource inventory is used to determine the baseline of conservation and management, the ecological monitoring is applied to learn the rules of ecosystem changes, the natural and human interference monitoring helps clarify the correlation mechanism, and the management effectiveness monitoring serves the evaluation of management effectiveness. On this basis, the paper further proposed an implementation mechanism for the national park monitoring, which is composed of three-level monitoring network, monitoring data management, and management effectiveness evaluation. In the "nation-province-national park" implementation mechanism, on the one hand, a unified monitoring database system and management platform should be established to realize the storage, management and analysis of monitoring data; on the other hand, the management effectiveness evaluation system should also be set up, to promote the monitoring data to serve the conservation planning and management of national parks. The paper made an important attempt in the construction of the national park monitoring system, and is expected to provide a useful reference for the establishment of the national park monitoring system and implementation mechanism in China.

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焦雯珺,刘显洋,何思源,闵庆文.基于多类型自然保护地整合优化的国家公园综合监测体系构建.生态学报,2022,42(14):5825~5837

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