生态足迹是评估人类活动下生态可持续性的有效工具。基于1999-2020年CNKI中文核心期刊与1994-2020年Web of Science核心合集有关生态足迹研究文献共5104篇,运用CiteSpace可视化软件,绘制中外研究高频词时区、关键词聚类及突现词时间分布科学知识图谱,梳理中外生态足迹相关研究演进路径、基本理论框架与动态前沿。研究结果表明:(1)中外生态足迹研究演进路径均可分为三个阶段,但演进方式有所差异,且国内研究较国外相对滞后;(2)中外生态足迹研究均已形成以生态足迹模型方法为工具、以足迹测算为基础、以生态安全为落脚点、以促进人与生态协调发展为目标的基础框架体系,国外侧重基础框架构建、宏观尺度研究与微观机制分析,国内侧重模型和方法优化与外部环境分析;(3)当前国外前沿方向为环境库兹涅茨曲线假设验证研究与生态网络分析,国内为碳足迹和水资源足迹的测算、三维生态足迹模型下的自然资本评估以及生态补偿问题。
Ecological footprint is an effective tool for assessing ecological sustainability under the influence of human activities. In this paper, based on 5104 papers on ecological footprint research in CNKI Chinese core journals from 1999 to 2020 and the core collection of Web of Science from 1994 to 2020, the knowledge maps, including time zone division of high frequency words, keywords clustering and temporal distribution of strong citation burst, were drawn with CiteSpace visualization software. The evolution path, basic theoretical framework and dynamic frontier of ecological footprint research were analyzed and summarized according to these maps. The results showed that: (1) The evolution paths of ecological footprint research in China and abroad were divided into three stages. But the evolution modes were different, and the research in China lagged behind the foreign research. (2) A basic framework system was formed in the study field of ecological footprint both home and abroad, which took the ecological footprint models and methods as tools, the footprint measurement as the basis, the ecological security as the foothold, and the coordinated development of human and ecology as the goal for the ecological footprint research. Foreign research focused on basic study framework construction, macro scale research and micro mechanism analysis. However, the optimization of models and methods, and the analysis of external environment were emphasized in Chinese research. (3) The frontier direction of foreign research was the hypothesis verification of environmental Kuznets curve and ecological network analysis, while it was the calculation of carbon footprint and water footprint, the evaluation of natural capital with the three-dimensional ecological footprint model and ecological compensation in China.