建立健全生态产品价值实现机制的路径探索
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2019年度自然资源部科技创新人才培养工程青年人才资助项目(12110600000018003931)


Research on the path and mechanism improment of ecological product value realization
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Science and technology innovation talent training and youth funding project

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    摘要:

    生态文明是人类文明发展的一个新的阶段,即工业文明之后的文明形态,是中国在新发展阶段辩证反思人与自然关系的理论创举,生态产品价值实现是对生态文明理念的呼应,其路径的探索是生态文明理念落地的关键。2021年《关于建立健全生态产品价值实现机制的意见》的出台推动了生态产品价值实现有关理论与实践研究,提出建立生态产品调查监测机制、价值评价机制、经营开发机制、补偿机制、价值实现保障机制和价值实现推进机制。目前,生态产品价值实现的实践探索初具规模,但是学界关于生态产品的概念界定尚未达成共识,相应的学理基础研究相对迟滞,生态产品价值实现的模式与路径还不清晰。从界定生态产品概念、加强学理基础研究出发,梳理了政府主导、市场主导、通过制度设计促进全社会参与生态产品价值实现的实践探索及存在问题与障碍。政府主导面临财政资金缺口大、财政资金利用效率不高、"公地悲剧"愈演愈烈等经济、社会风险;市场主导面临法律法规或强制性政策缺位、市场活跃度不高、市场建立与交易规则不明确或市场监管失灵等问题;社会参与面临法规政策或制度设计不完善、吸引市场主体参与的激励措施不够、政府与市场合力发挥不够或资金使用效率低等问题。在此基础上,提出了持续深化落实自然资源产权制度改革、将用途管制制度拓展到整个国土空间、科学开展生态保护修复和利用基于自然的解决方案技术、工具保障优质生态产品供给、深入开展生态产品价值实现理论研究和价值核算研究等建议。研究为促进生态产品价值实现理论、实践发展和助推相关标准体系构建提供参考。

    Abstract:

    Abstract:Ecological civilization is a new stage of the development of human civilization, that is, the civilization form after industrial civilization.It is a theoretical innovation for China to dialectically reflect on the relationship between man and nature in the new development stage. The realization of ecological product value echoes the concept of ecological civilization, and the exploration of its path is the key to landing the concept of ecological civilization. In 2021, the opinions on establishing and improving the value realization mechanism of ecological products promoted the theoretical and practical research on the value realization of ecological products, and proposed the establishment of ecological product investigation and monitoring mechanism, value evaluation mechanism, operation and development mechanism, compensation mechanism, value realization guarantee mechanism and value realization promotion mechanism. At present, the practical exploration of realizing the value of ecological products has begun to take shape, but the academic circles have not reached a consensus on the definition of ecological products, the corresponding theoretical basic research is relatively sluggish,and the mode and path of realizing the value of ecological products are not clear. Starting from defining the concept of ecological products and strengthening theoretical basic research, this paper combs the beneficial exploration of realizing the value of ecological products led by the government、the market and the society. The government led type faces economic and social risks such as large financial fund gap, low efficiency of financial fund utilization, and the growing "tragedy of the commons"; The market leading type faces problems such as the absence of laws and regulations or mandatory policies, low market activity, unclear market establishment and trading rules or market supervision failure; The types of extensive social participation face problems such as imperfect laws and policies, insufficient incentive measures to attract market participants, insufficient joint force between the government and the market, or low efficiency of fund use. On this basis,this paper try to put forward some suggestions, such as continuously deepening the reform of the property right system of natural resources, expanding the use control system to the whole national space, carrying out in-depth research on the value realization theory and value accounting of ecological products,scientifically carrying out ecological protection and restoration, and ensuring the supply of high-quality ecological products by using natural-based solution technologies and tools. The research provides reference for promoting the theoretical and practical development of ecological product value realization and boosting the construction of relevant standard system.

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张丽佳,周妍.建立健全生态产品价值实现机制的路径探索.生态学报,2021,41(19):7893~7899

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  • 收稿日期:2021-07-06
  • 最后修改日期:2021-08-13
  • 录用日期:2021-08-16
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-10-15
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