基于多源数据的三江源国家公园土地生态安全综合评价
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中国科学院-青海省人民政府三江源国家公园联合研究专项(YHZX-2020-07);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK0401);中国科学院A类战略性先导科技专项(XDA20020302)


Comprehensive evaluation of land ecological security in the Sanjiangyuan National Park based on multi-source data
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    摘要:

    开展国家公园尺度的土地生态安全综合评价,对优化三江源国家公园土地利用管理规划、加强生态网络建设具有重要借鉴价值。在"压力-状态-响应"(PSR)理论框架中融入草地退化指数、冻土稳定型分布、生态系统服务价值和景观生态脆弱性等指标,分析三江源国家公园土地生态安全状况及其主导因素。研究表明:(1)三江源国家公园景观生态脆弱性整体较低,不同园区景观生态脆弱性指数略有差异,长江源园区为中等脆弱区,黄河源园区脆弱性次之,澜沧江源园区景观生态脆弱性优于其他两园区。(2)三江源国家公园整体土地生态安全状况为较不安全,其中,长江源园区、澜沧江源园区以较不安全区等级为主、临界安全等级次之,黄河源园区临界安全及以上等级的面积比重为93.94%。(3)土地生态较安全区和安全区分布于长江源园区中南部,以及黄河源园区南北两侧边缘区,较不安全区和临界安全区在长江源园区、澜沧江源园区以及黄河源园区交错且连片分布。(4)基于地理探测器模型的自然生态和社会经济影响因素识别结果显示,居民点密度、水网密度和景观生态脆弱性是影响三江源国家公园土地生态安全的主导因素,揭示了人类活动扰动程度与生态系统脆弱性对国家公园土地生态安全状况的综合作用。

    Abstract:

    Carrying out a comprehensive assessment of land ecological security at the national park scale has important reference value for optimizing the land use management planning of the Sanjiangyuan National Park and strengthening the construction of ecological networks. Integrate indicators such as grassland degradation index, frozen soil stable distribution, ecosystem service value and landscape ecological fragility into the theoretical framework of "stress-state-response" (PSR), analyze the land ecological security status of the Sanjiangyuan National Park and its leading factors are analyzed. The results show that:(1) The overall ecological vulnerability of the Sanjiangyuan National Park landscape is relatively low. The landscape ecological vulnerability index of different parks is slightly different. The vulnerability of the Yangtze River Source Park and the Yellow River Source Park are both moderately vulnerable areas. The landscape ecological vulnerability of the Lancang River Source Park is better than that of the Yangtze River Source Park and the Yellow River Source Park. (2) There are regional differences in the composition and structure of the land ecological security of the Sanjiangyuan National Park, and the overall land ecological security status of the Sanjiangyuan National Park is relatively unsafe. The Yangtze River Source Park and Lancang River Source Park are dominated by less safe zone levels and critical safety levels. The remaining land ecological security levels are distributed in a small number. About 93.94% of the Yellow River Source Park has a safety level of criticality safety and above. (3) The land ecological security layer and relative security layer of the Sanjiangyuan National Park are nested in the central and southern part of the Yangtze River Source Park, as well as the marginal areas on the north and south sides of the Yellow River Source Park. In the Yangtze River Source Park, the Lancang River Source Park and the Yellow River Source Park, the less safe areas and critically safe areas are often staggered across large areas. (4) The identification results of influencing factors based on the GeoDetector model show that settlement density, water network density, and landscape ecological vulnerability are the dominant factors affecting the land ecological security of the Sanjiangyuan National Park. It reveals the comprehensive effect of the degree of disturbance of human activities and the fragility of ecosystems on the ecological security of national parks.

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张晓瑶,虞虎,张潇,周侃.基于多源数据的三江源国家公园土地生态安全综合评价.生态学报,2022,42(14):5665~5676

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