近40年青藏高原植被动态变化对水热条件的响应
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国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFA0606902);中国科学院战略先导A类专项(XDA2009000002)


Response of vegetation dynamics to hydrothermal conditions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the last 40 years
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    摘要:

    植被对水热条件的响应因生态系统的空间异质性而具有显著的差异。基于GIMMS NDVI3g和MODIS NDVI逐旬数据集,通过数据融合构建的青藏高原1982-2020年的植被时间序列,利用Mann-Kendall趋势法分析近40年植被动态变化及其对温度、降水和辐射等水热条件的响应,并划定了植被动态的主要水热驱动因子分区。结果表明:(1)近40年青藏高原植被生长季平均NDVI呈现显著上升趋势,增速为0.006/10a,植被NDVI显著增加和减少的区域分别占青藏高原总面积的73.97%和18.38%;(2)青藏高原植被对水热条件的响应在静态上表现为高原腹地较高原边缘更加明显;在动态上表现为不同植被类型区对水热因子的响应关系、方向、程度均有所不同;整体上除森林和灌丛外,所有高寒植被类型与降水的响应程度要优于温度和辐射;(3)青藏高原植被生长受水热因子驱动的区域占高原总面积的55.95%,其中42.72%以上的区域气温、降水和太阳辐射的驱动作用是互补的,13.23%的区域由多个水热因子联合驱动;44.05%的区域为非气候驱动区。

    Abstract:

    The response of vegetation to hydrothermal conditions varies significantly due to the spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems. In-depth exploration of their response and adaptation mechanisms is important for understanding the impact of regional climate change. In order to explore the relationship between vegetation and climate change on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau for a long time, we constructed the vegetation time series of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1982 to 2020 based on the global inventory modeling and mapping studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI data sets by Maximum Value Composition (MVC), pixel-by-pixel regression analysis and data fusion. The Mann-Kendall trend method was used to analyze the dynamic changes of vegetation over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in recent 40 years. The partial correlation and complex correlation analysis methods were used to explore the responses of vegetation to the changes of temperature, precipitation and radiation, while the main driving factors of vegetation dynamic changes were demarcated. The results show that:(1) in recent 40 years, the average NDVI of vegetation growing season on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau increased significantly with an average growth rate of 0.006/10a, which was 0.005/10a before 2000 and 0.011/10a after 2000. The area where NDVI increased significantly accounted for 73.97% of the total area of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. They were mainly distributed in the north, west and south of the Plateau. The NDVI decreased significantly in the southeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, accounting for 18.38% of the total area, where the altitude is relatively low and human activities are frequent. (2) The response of vegetation to hydrothermal conditions in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is more intense than that in the edge of the plateau, and the response threshold is obvious. The temperature is 2-11℃, the precipitation is 250-650 mm, and the radiation is 2900-3750 MJ/m2. On the whole, except for forest and shrub, the response degree of all alpine vegetation types to precipitation is stronger than that of temperature and radiation. On the interdecadal scale, the positive effect of ecological engineering from 2001 to 2010 was the most obvious. (3) The growth of vegetation on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is driven by hydrothermal factors accounts for 55.95% of the total area. Among them, more than 42.72% of the areas are complementary driven by temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. 13.23% of the areas are driven by combination multiple hydrothermal factors. In addition, 44.05% of the areas are non-climate-driven. In space, different vegetation types showed different positive and negative responses to hydrothermal factors. The alpine vegetation in the northern part of the plateau is mainly driven by solar radiation. The arid and semi-arid grasslands in the plateau hinterland are mainly driven by precipitation. The meadows and thickets in the central and southern part of the plateau are mainly driven by temperature. The coniferous, broad-leaved and mixed forests on the southern edge of the plateau are slightly more affected by radiation and temperature.

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李红英,张存桂,汪生珍,马伟东,刘峰贵,陈琼,周强,夏兴生,牛百成.近40年青藏高原植被动态变化对水热条件的响应.生态学报,2022,42(12):4770~4783

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