基于SWAT模型的汾河流域生态补水研究
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国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFA0605001)


Study on ecological water supplement in Fenhe River Basin based on SWAT Model
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    摘要:

    随着人类对于河流的开发利用日益增强,显著改变了河流的天然径流过程,生态供水不足成为流域生态系统健康的重要制约因素。以山西省汾河流域为研究区,基于天然和实测径流数据,利用SWAT模型分别模拟了流域近30年天然径流和近10年跨流域调水情况下现状径流过程,并在此基础上对流域各河道生态流量及现状径流量进行时空量化,探讨了不同生态流量标准下生态缺水量在时间和空间上的变化情况。研究结果表明:(1)汾河流域各河道生态流量时空差异明显,汛期(0.50-18.80m3/s)河道生态流量需求显著高于非汛期(0.05-1.81m3/s),总体分布特征为中下游干流远高于上游支流;(2)在Tennant法的不同生态流量标准下,汾河流域非汛期生态流量保障情况整体优于汛期,高频缺水区主要分布在支流,呈上下游分散分布;(3)在中等级生态流量标准下,流域约84%的区域能保障基本生态流量需求,关键缺水区为岚河、潇河、浮山县及浍河地区;(4)建议流域生态补水在时间上侧重汛期补水,空间上侧重高频缺水地区,基于流域生态缺水量时空分布特征分配跨流域调水资源,提高水资源利用效率。研究从时空上量化了跨流域调水工程实施后流域生态流量满足程度,可以为未来流域水资源管理提供有效指导。

    Abstract:

    Facing the increasingly serious water shortage problem, with the increasing demand for water resources, the development and utilization of rivers by human beings have been enhanced, which significantly changed the natural hydrological process of basins. The basic ecological water demand of rivers cannot be guaranteed, and the shortage of ecological water supply has become an important factor restricting the health of watershed ecosystem. In order to effectively guarantee the river ecological flow, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate the natural runoff and the current runoff process with inter basin water transfer in Fenhe River Basin of Shanxi Province based on the natural and measured hydrological data. First, based on the SWAT model, the monthly natural runoff for about 30 years and the monthly current runoff after the implementation of inter basin water transfer projects in recent 10 years were simulated in the Fenhe River Basin. Second, based on the improved Tennant method, the ecological flow values under different ecological flow criteria were quantified in each river channel in flood season and non-flood season. Last, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of ecological flow and ecological water shortage were analyzed in the whole basin. The results showed that:(1) the ecological flow of each channel showed significantly temporal and spatial differences, with the values were 0.05-1.81 m3/s for non-flood season and 0.50-18.8 m3/s for flood season. The overall distribution characteristics were that the ecological flow in the middle and lower reaches was much higher than that in the upstream tributaries. (2) Under different ecological flow criteria of Tennant method, the satisfaction of ecological flow in non-flood season was better than that in flood season, and the areas with high-frequency of water shortage were mainly distributed in the upstream and downstream tributaries. (3) Under the medium-level environmental flow standards, about 84% of the basin could guarantee the basic ecological flow demand, and the key water shortage areas were Lanhe, Xiaohe, Fushan County and Huihe River basin. (4) The ecological water supplement of the basin should focus on flood season in time and areas with high frequency of water shortage in space, and the water resources of inter-basin water transfer projects should be allocated based on the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of ecological water deficiency to improve the utilization efficiency of water. In conclusion, this study quantified the satisfaction degree of ecological flow after the implementation of inter basin water transfer projects in time and space, which can provide effective guidance for watershed water resources management.

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焦丽君,刘瑞民,王林芳,党晋华,肖艳艳,夏星辉.基于SWAT模型的汾河流域生态补水研究.生态学报,2022,42(14):5778~5788

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