High-quality production-living-ecological space is an important guarantee and carrier for high-quality urban spatial layouts and high-efficiency functions. Urban Agglomerations are the concentrated areas of urban production-living-ecological spatial conflicts. Reducing the urban vulnerability of Urban Agglomerations has become the key to regional sustainable development. Therefore, the research on the urban vulnerability of Harbin-Changchun Urban Agglomeration based on the production-living-ecological Spatial Quality is of great significance to the coordinated and stable development of territorial space. Taking 11 cities in the Harbin-Changchun Urban Agglomeration as the research area, the urban vulnerability evaluation index system was constructed based on the quality of production space, the quality of living space and the quality of ecological space. The entropy weight-TOPSIS evaluation model, ArcGIS spatial analysis tools and geographic detectors were used to analyze the patterns and driving forces of the spatial and temporal evolution of urban vulnerability in the Harbin-Changchun Urban Agglomeration from 2010 to 2018. The research results show that: (1) The urban vulnerability of the Harbin-Changchun Urban Agglomeration presented a downward trend from 2010 to 2018, and the urban vulnerability spatially showed a trend of increasing first and then weakening. The number of high-level areas of urban vulnerability showed a trend of strengthening first and then weakening, while the concentrated distribution of areas with similar urban vulnerability indexes showed a trend of weakening first and then increasing. (2) The II and I level areas were mainly distributed in the core area, which were distributed in spots and scattered. The V and IV level areas were mainly distributed in the peripheral areas, showing a spatial pattern of widely distributed on the edge. The spatial distribution was randomized and there was no obvious agglomeration. Judging from the characteristics of the types of evolution trends, there were more cities showing a divergent trend than a convergence trend, which indicated that the spatial differences in urban vulnerability of the Harbin-Changchun Urban Agglomeration were gradually increasing. (3) Based on the production-living-ecological Spatial Quality, the spatial differentiation of the urban vulnerability of Harbin-Changchun Urban Agglomeration was mainly caused by the difference in the vulnerability of urban living space quality, followed by the difference in the vulnerability of urban production space quality. Among them, the low level of economic growth was the primary factor for the vulnerability of urban production space quality; The imperfect transportation facilities, insufficient gas supply, large gap between urban and rural areas, low education level and low level of information were the key factors for the vulnerability of urban living space quality; The intensity of sewage treatment, the level of urban greening and the intensity of harmless treatment of domestic waste were the basic elements that affected the vulnerability of the urban ecological space quality of the Harbin-Changchun Urban Agglomeration.