长白山阔叶红松林紫椴种群结构与动态特征
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国家科技基础资源调查项目(2019FY101602)


Population structure and dynamic characteristics of Tilia amurensis in broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain
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    摘要:

    紫椴(Tilia amurensis)为国家二级重点保护野生植物。以长白山北坡阔叶红松林内的紫椴种群为研究对象,通过建立种群静态生命表、绘制存活曲线、计算数量动态指数并引入生存函数和时间序列预测模型定量描绘其结构与动态特征。结果表明:1)种群年龄结构呈不规则金字塔形,幼龄阶段(Ⅰ-Ⅳ龄级)个体数之和占个体总数的67.26%。2)种群存活曲线接近Deevey-Ⅲ型,表明植株在幼龄阶段死亡率高。3)总体数量动态变化指数Vpi>V'pi>0,表明紫椴种群为增长型,但V'pi趋近于0,结合死亡率(qx)和消失率(Kx)曲线呈现出连续性先增后降的复杂动态变化趋势,可知该种群不稳定且在干扰情况下增长趋势不明显。4)生存函数分析显示,种群在Ⅲ-Ⅳ龄级间达到平衡状态,尔后进入衰退期且从第Ⅷ龄级开始进入生理衰退。5)时间序列预测分析表明,在未来2、3、4、5、6、7、8、9、10龄级时间后,紫椴幼龄个体数逐渐减小,而中、成和老龄个体数量将逐渐增加,说明未来紫椴种群的增长主要依靠后者。生物学特性和生境是限制紫椴种群增长的主要原因。建议加强幼苗抚育工作,提高幼苗和小树的存活率,保护和改善生存环境,从而促进紫椴种群的自然更新和恢复。

    Abstract:

    Tilia amurensis is the second-class national protection species. In this study, the population structure and dynamic characteristics of T. amurensis distributed in Changbai Mountain were analyzed by population statistics, including static life table, survival curve, the quantity dynamic index, survival function, and time series prediction model. The results showed that:1) the age-class structure of T. amurensis population was irregular pyramid type, and the sum of number of young individuals (I-IV age class) accounted for 67.26% of the total individuals. 2) The survival cure was close to Deevey-Ⅲ type, which showed that the number of young individuals was abound while their survival rate was low. 3) The population dynamics index was Vpi>V'pi>0, indicating that T. amurensis population belonged to the increasing type. However, the index V'pi closed to 0, and the curve of mortality rate (qx) and vanish rate (Kx) showed a complex dynamic trend of continuous increase first and then decrease, which indicated that the population stability was poor and the growth trend was not obvious in the case of disturbance. 4) The analysis of survival function showed that the population reached a balance between the age classes of Ⅲ-Ⅳ, and then entered the decline period. From the age class of Ⅷ, the population entered a physiological decline phase. 5) Time series prediction analysis showed that in the next 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 age classes, the number of young individuals would gradually decrease, while the number of middle-aged, adult and old individuals would gradually increase, indicating that the maintenance of T. amurensis population mainly depends on the latter in the future. The biological characteristics and habitat are the main factors limiting the population growth of T. amurensis. We suggest that the seedling raising should be strengthened to improve the survival rate of the seedlings and small trees, and the habitat should also be protected to enhance natural regeneration and restoration of the T. amurensis population.

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张金峰,葛树森,梁金花,李俊清.长白山阔叶红松林紫椴种群结构与动态特征.生态学报,2022,42(13):5381~5390

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