Tilia amurensis is the second-class national protection species. In this study, the population structure and dynamic characteristics of T. amurensis distributed in Changbai Mountain were analyzed by population statistics, including static life table, survival curve, the quantity dynamic index, survival function, and time series prediction model. The results showed that:1) the age-class structure of T. amurensis population was irregular pyramid type, and the sum of number of young individuals (I-IV age class) accounted for 67.26% of the total individuals. 2) The survival cure was close to Deevey-Ⅲ type, which showed that the number of young individuals was abound while their survival rate was low. 3) The population dynamics index was Vpi>V'pi>0, indicating that T. amurensis population belonged to the increasing type. However, the index V'pi closed to 0, and the curve of mortality rate (qx) and vanish rate (Kx) showed a complex dynamic trend of continuous increase first and then decrease, which indicated that the population stability was poor and the growth trend was not obvious in the case of disturbance. 4) The analysis of survival function showed that the population reached a balance between the age classes of Ⅲ-Ⅳ, and then entered the decline period. From the age class of Ⅷ, the population entered a physiological decline phase. 5) Time series prediction analysis showed that in the next 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 age classes, the number of young individuals would gradually decrease, while the number of middle-aged, adult and old individuals would gradually increase, indicating that the maintenance of T. amurensis population mainly depends on the latter in the future. The biological characteristics and habitat are the main factors limiting the population growth of T. amurensis. We suggest that the seedling raising should be strengthened to improve the survival rate of the seedlings and small trees, and the habitat should also be protected to enhance natural regeneration and restoration of the T. amurensis population.