Promoting green urbanization and developing low-carbon economy are the key to realize the regional sustainable development. This paper uses the comprehensive index method and carbon emission model to measure the urbanization level and carbon emissions from land use in 14 regions (prefectures and cities) in Xinjiang from 2000 to 2018, and uses partial least squares method and coupling coordination model to discuss the influence mechanism and coupling relationship between the urbanization level and carbon emissions from land use. The results show that:(1) there were significant differences in the new urbanization level among different regions (prefectures and cities) in Xinjiang. In 2018, Urumqi had the highest level (83.43%) and Kizilsu Klrgiz Autonomous Prefecture had the lowest level (18.15%). The dominant type of urbanization changed in the order of population urbanization→land urbanization→economic urbanization→social urbanization. (2) The carbon effect of land use in Xinjiang changed from negative to positive, and the average annual growth rate of net carbon emissions reached 7.86×106 t/a. The coefficient of variation took 2004 as a turning point, showing an inverted "V" trend. After 2004, the relative differences in carbon consumption across regions (prefectures and cities) gradually decreased. (3) Economic, social and land urbanization were three important dimensions of urbanization that affect the regional land use carbon emissions. Per capita GDP, the added value of the secondary industry, the total retail sales of social consumer goods, the social fixed-assets investment and the built-up area were the most important factors. (4) The coupling degree and coupling coordination degree of urbanization and carbon emissions from land use in all regions (prefectures and cities) showed an upward trend. Urbanization and carbon emissions from land use had good resonance and tended to develop synchronously, indicating that the negative effect of energy consumption in the development of urbanization in Xinjiang was increasingly prominent. Finally, this paper puts forward suggestions and countermeasures to improve the efficiency of carbon emissions and promote the green development of urbanization in Xinjiang.