城市内涝与基于自然的解决方案研究综述
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国家自然科学基金面上项目(41771203)


Review on Nature-based Solutions and applications on urban waterlogging mitigation
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The National Natural Science Foundation of China (General Program, Key Program, Major Research Plan)

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    摘要:

    受全球变暖和快速城市化的影响,城市可持续发展面临重大挑战。近10年,基于自然的解决方案(Nature-based Solutions,NbS)受到广泛关注与认可,为解决城市所面临的生态环境问题、提升城市韧性和可持续性提供了新的思路和途径。本文首先回顾了NbS的提出背景与发展历程,剖析了其核心内涵与框架准则,进而以城市中日益突出的内涝问题为例,介绍了NbS在应对和解决城市典型生态环境问题中的应用;通过汇总现有实施案例、整合多方观点,对比分析了NbS与国内外城市内涝管理的常用方法在概念框架、理论内涵和应用实践等方面的区别与联系;综合论述了基于NbS开展城市内涝管理所采用的技术手段、计量方法、评价模型的发展现状;最后,对NbS在我国的应用进行了展望,认为其在适应气候变化、提高城市韧性等方面具有巨大的潜力,但大范围的推广也面临理论认知尚不深入、实践过程存在障碍、专业人才与本土研究不足等多项挑战。

    Abstract:

    Under the context of global warming and rapid urbanization, cities worldwide are increasingly facing problems of environmental pollution and ecosystem degradation, one of the grand challenges in achieving Sustainable Development Goals. Such challenges call for new frameworks and approaches for improved urban ecosystem management. Nature-based Solutions (NbS) has now been increasingly recognized as an effective means to mitigate ecological risks, strengthen city resilience and advance urban sustainability. Here, we systematically reviewed the background and development of NbS, in order to provide insights into its critical content and criteria guidelines. Taking urban waterlogging, a problem faced by many cities worldwide as an example, we first reviewed the applications of NbS on urban waterlogging mitigation, from technical tools at micro level, to measurement methods and evaluation models at macro level. Our study shows that NbS has unique advantages of addressing urban environmental problems, compared with traditional grey facilities in cities. We highlight the significance of NbS in stormwater management via restoration of natural water body, utilization of rainwater and optimization of urban landscape. We further compared NbS with other similar solutions related to stormwater management to summarize existing implementation cases and integrate various perspectives. Finally, we discussed the potentials of applying NbS on climate adaptation to enhance urban resilience, as well as the challenges such as unmatured theoretical concept of NbS, gaps from theory to practice, weakness in local-based knowledge for applications, and lack of well-trained practitioners.

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周伟奇,朱家蓠.城市内涝与基于自然的解决方案研究综述.生态学报,2022,42(13):5137~5151

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