全国重要生态功能区生物多样性保护成效区域对比评估
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国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0500204);国家自然科学基金(42001266)


Regional comparative evaluation of biodiversity conservation effectiveness in National Important Ecological Function Areas
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    摘要:

    国家重要生态功能区是国家主体功能区战略实施和生态保护红线划定的基础,关系到全国乃至全球范围的生态安全。开展大尺度生物多样性保护成效区域对比评估对促进物种栖息地科学管理、提升国家生物多样性保护水平具有较为重要的意义。本研究以2015年《全国生态功能区划》修编版划定的24个生物多样性保护生态功能区为研究对象,选取生态功能区内或邻近生态功能区的国家级自然保护区核心区作为参照区,利用InVEST模型计算多年参照区生境质量指数,并从中筛选出最大值,构建全国尺度的生境质量指数参照基准,在此基础上,采用空间叠加分析方法建立保护成效指数,定量分析了24个重要生态功能区生物多样性保护成效空间对比差异。研究结果表明:(1)基于参照基准的生物多样性保护成效区域对比评估方法可以较好地应用于全国尺度,全国重要生态功能区生境质量指数参照基准呈现明显的"西北低,东南高"的分布格局,而重要生态功能区生物多样性保护成效则表现出"西北高,东南低"的空间差异;(2)位于华东和华南地区的重要生态功能区生态环境本底状况较好,东北和华中地区的重要生态功能区居中,而西北和西南地区的重要生态功能区生态环境本底状况较差;(3)2015年西北和西南地区的重要生态功能区生境质量指数基本与参照基准持平,表现为生物多样性保护成效较好,华中和华南地区的重要生态功能区生境质量指数小幅度低于参照基准,体现保护效果居中,保护效果较差的重要生态功能区则位于东北与华东地区,其生境质量指数大幅度低于参照基准。通过对全国尺度重要生态功能区生物多样性保护成效区域对比评估,为进一步完善国家生物多样性保护成效的绩效考评机制和转移支付提供科学依据。

    Abstract:

    National Important Ecological Function Areas are the basis of implementing national main function area strategy and drawing ecological protection red line, which closely linked to the ecological security on a national and even global scale. It is of great significance to promote scientific management of species habitat and improve the national biodiversity level by spatial comparative assessment of biodiversity conservation effectiveness. In this study, the 24 ecological function areas for biodiversity conservation, which originated from the revised version of the National Ecological Function Zoning during 2015, were used for spatial comparative assessment. The core area of the national nature reserve inside or nearest the ecological function area was selected as the reference area, and the multi-year habitat quality index of reference area were calculated based on the InVEST model. Then, the maximum value of the multi-year habitat quality index as the habitat quality index reference at the national scale. Ultimately, the conservation effectiveness index was established by spatial overlay analysis method, and the spatial comparison differences of biodiversity conservation effectiveness were quantitatively analyzed in 24 important ecological function areas at national scale. The results showed that:(1) the regional comparative evaluation method of biodiversity conservation effectiveness based on reference can be better applied to the national scale. The distribution pattern of habitat quality index showed "low in the northwest and high in the southeast" for the reference area, while the biodiversity conservation effect presented "high in the northwest and low in the southeast" in the important ecological function zones. (2) the ecological environment background (reference) of ecological function areas in the East China and South China was better than the Northeast and Central China, and the ecological environment background of ecological function areas in the Northwest and Southwest was the worst; (3) the total habitat quality index of important ecological function zones was almost the same as the reference in the Northwest and Southwest, in other words, the biodiversity conservation was more effectively in these zones. The habitat quality index of important ecological function zones in the Central China and South China was slightly less than the reference, reflecting the conservation effectiveness was negative in these zones. The ecological function areas with the worst conservation effectiveness were located in the Northeast and East China, and their habitat quality index were significantly less than the reference. The results of the biodiversity conservation effectiveness in ecological function areas of national scale can provide a scientific basis for further improving the performance evaluation mechanism and transfer payment for the biodiversity conservation effectiveness.

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陈子琦,董凯凯,张艳红,侯光雷,刘兆礼.全国重要生态功能区生物多样性保护成效区域对比评估.生态学报,2022,42(13):5264~5274

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