贺兰山东坡不同海拔典型植被带土壤微生物磷酸脂肪酸分析
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宁夏自然科学基金项目(2020AAC03102);宁夏重点研发计划项目(2018BFG02015,2021BGF02005);国家自然科学基金项目(31960359)


Phospholipid fatty acid analysis of soil microbes in typical vegetation types at different elevation on the east slope of Helan Mountain
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    摘要:

    土壤微生物在维持干旱区森林生态系统功能稳定方面具有重要作用,但有关干旱区微生物群落结构及多样性沿海拔分布规律研究较少,采用磷酸脂肪酸(PLFA)法定量分析贺兰山自然保护区东坡不同海拔典型植被带(荒漠草原HM、蒙古扁桃MG、油松林YS、混交林HJ、青海云杉林QH)土壤微生物群落结构特征及多样性。结果表明,不同海拔植被带土壤中共检测出59种PLFA生物标记,YS土壤中生物标记的含量明显高于其他植被类型,5个植被带共有且含量较高的PLFA生物标记为16:0、18:1ω9c、18:1ω7c、10Me 16:0和18:2ω6c,特征微生物的含量在不同植被带土壤中分布不同,细菌分布数量最大,其次是真菌、放线菌,原生动物分布数量最小。聚类分析发现,不同植被带土壤PLFA生物标记可分成不同的类群,16:0、18:1ω9c和18:1ω7c基本在每个植被带都会单独聚为一类。对不同植被带所共有的PLFA生物标记绘制热图,发现不同的PLFA生物标记在不同植被带分布不同,YS植被带PLFA生物标记分布最高。不同植被带土壤微生物群落多样性显示,HJ土壤中微生物多样性指数大于其他植被类型,HM土壤中微生物多样性指数最小,说明土壤微生物多样性与植被多样性密切相关。主成分分析表明,与土壤微生物群落相关的2个主成分解释量为78.01%和8.80%,对第1主成分起主要作用的微生物类群有非特异性细菌、革兰氏阳性细菌、革兰氏阴性细菌、真菌、放线菌和原生动物等,对第2主成分起主要作用的微生物类群为厌氧细菌。土壤微生物与土壤因子相关性分析表明,土壤有机碳(SOC)、全氮(TN)与微生物类群及多样性指数正相关,pH、容重(BD)与微生物类群及多样性指数负相关,海拔引起土壤因子的改变是影响土壤微生物群落结构及多样性的重要因素。研究表明YS土壤中微生物含量最大,HJ土壤中微生物多样性最高,与山地生态系统中中部区域生物多样性高的其他研究结果相吻合,可为贺兰山自然保护区土壤微生物的研究及保护区的管理提供科学依据。

    Abstract:

    Soil microorganisms play an important role for maintaining the functional stability of forest ecosystem in arid areas. However, distribution of soil microbial community structure and diversity along an elevation gradient remains poorly understood, especially in the arid areas. In this study, the phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) was used to examine variations in soil microbial community diversity along an elevational eastern slope in the Helan Mountain (Desert Steppe (HM), Amygdalus mongolica (Maxim) Ricker (MG), Pinus tabulaeformis forest (YS), Mixed forest (HJ), Picea crassifolia Kom forest(QH)). The results showed that, there existed 59 PLFAs which were significantly different in the soil samples from different vegetation types. The YS soil exhibited richer PLFAs distribution amount than the other vegetation types. The PLFAs biomarkers of five vegetation types with the highest contents were 16:0, 18:1ω9c, 18:1ω7c, 10Me 16:0 and 18:2ω6c, respectively. The amount of characteristic microorganisms was different in soil of different vegetation types, the bacteria had the richest distribution, followed by fungi, actinomycetes and protozoa. Cluster analysis showed that soil PLFAs could be divided into different groups in different vegetation types, 16:0, 18:1ω9c and 18:1ω7c could be divided into one group in different vegetation types. The heat map of the common PLFAs in different vegetation types was drawn. It was found that the distribution of different PLFAs was different in different vegetation types, and the distribution of PLFAs in YS vegetation was the highest. The diversity of soil microbial communities in different vegetation types showed that the microbial diversity index in HJ was higher than the other vegetation types, and the HM was the lowest, indicating that soil microbial diversity was closely related to vegetation diversity. Component analysis (PCA) identified 2 principal component factors in relation to microbial community diversity, explaining 78.01% and 8.80% of the variation, respectively. The microorganisms, which play a major role on first principal component, are nonspecific bacteria; Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and protozoa, which play a major role on second principal component, are anaerobic bacteria. Correlation analysis between soil microorganisms and soil factors showed that soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were positively correlated with soil microbial groups and diversity index, while pH and bulk density (BD) were negatively correlated with microbial groups and diversity index. The change of soil factors caused by altitude was an important factor affecting soil microbial community structure and diversity. The results show that YS soil has the highest microbial content, and HJ soil has the highest microbial diversity, which accords with the theory of high biodiversity in the central region of mountain ecosystem, and can provide scientific basis for the study of soil microorganisms and the management of Helan Mountain Nature Reserve.

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马进鹏,庞丹波,陈林,万红云,陈高路,李学斌.贺兰山东坡不同海拔典型植被带土壤微生物磷酸脂肪酸分析.生态学报,2022,42(12):5045~5058

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