建筑对城市能量分配和微气候起着重要作用，探讨建筑三维空间形态与地气能量/微气候关系对气候适应性城市建设具有重大意义。基于ENVI-met的多情景模拟结果和增强回归树量化了建筑三维分形维数和三维形状指数对地气能量指标（净辐射、土壤热通量、建筑储热、感热通量和潜热通量）、空气温度和空气相对湿度的影响。研究结果表明，建筑三维分形维数、三维形状指数与地气能量动态、空气温度和空气相对湿度存在非线性关系。白天，当三维分形维数高于2.4，或三维形状指数低于2.0时，随着三维分形维数或三维形状指数的增加，三维分形维数和三维形状指数与净辐射、土壤热通量、建筑储热、感热通量、潜热通量和空气温度呈现统计负相关。夜间，当三维分形维数高于2.4，三维分形维数与感热通量和空气温度呈现负相关；与土壤热通量和潜热通量呈现正相关。夜间，当三维形状指数小于2.0时，三维形状指数与空气温度、空气相对湿度呈现负相关。当三维形状指数在2.0-2.5时，三维形状指数与感热通量、潜热通量呈现负相关；当三维形状指数高于2.5时，三维形状指数与感热通量、潜热通量不存在统计关系。白天，建筑三维分形维数的增加，净辐射、土壤热通量、建筑储热、感热通量、潜热通量和空气温度分别下降1.0、7.0、15.0、20.0、10.0 W/m2，0.2℃。三维形状指数的增加，净辐射、土壤热通量、建筑储热、感热通量、潜热通量和空气温度分别下降0.5、3.0、10.0、10.0、10.0 W/m2，0.05℃。
Buildings, as a crucial element of the cities, plays an important role in altering surface energy partitioning and regulating microclimate. Quantifying the relationship between architectural three-dimensional morphology and atmosphere-soil energy processes/microclimate is of great importance to climate resilient city. This paper investigates the relationships between architectural three-dimensional fractal/three-dimensional shape index and atmosphere-soil energy processes/air temperature/air relative humidity based on multiple scenario simulations using ENVI-met by adopting a method of boosted regression trees (BRTs). The results show that in daytime, non-linear relationships exist between three-dimensional fractal/three-dimensional shape index and atmosphere-soil energy processes (the net radiation, soil heat flux, storage of heat in buildings, sensible flux, and latent flux)/air temperature/air relative humidity. In daytime, when the three-dimensional fractal increases from 2.4 to 2.6 or the three-dimensional shape index increases from 1.0 to 2.0, these two indicators exhibit a stepwise negative correlation with the net radiation, soil heat flux, storage of heat in buildings, sensible flux, latent flux, and air temperature, respectively. The 3D fractal shows a positive correlation with air relative humidity. With 3D shape index increases, the air relative humidity changes slightly. At night, when the 3D fractal changes higher than 2.4, the 3D fractal shows a negative correlation with sensible flux and air temperature, while a positive correlation with soil heat flux and latent flux. At night, when the 3D shape index changes lower than 2.0, the 3D shape index exhibits a negative correlation with air temperature and relative humidity. In daytime, when the 3D shape index ranges from 2.0 to 2.5, the 3D shape index shows a negative correlation with sensible flux and latent flux; And when the 3D shape index exceeds 2.5, there is no statistically correlation between the 3D shape index and energy indicators. In daytime, the impact amplitudes of the three-dimensional fractal on atmosphere-soil energy processes (the net radiation, soil heat flux, storage of heat in buildings, sensible flux, and latent flux)/air temperature/air relative humidity are 1.0 W/m2, 7.0 W/m2, 15.0 W/m2, 20.0 W/m2, 10.0 W/m2, 0.2℃, respectively. The impact amplitudes of the three-dimensional shape index on atmosphere-soil energy processes/air temperature/air relative humidity are 0.5 W/m2, 3.0 W/m2, 10.0 W/m2, 10.0 W/m2, 10.0 W/m2, 0.05℃, respectively. These findings can provide quantitative insights for regulating atmosphere-soil energy processes and microclimate via design of 3D architectural morphology. Given the direct insights provided, the BRTs method is recommended for exploring the relationships between architectural morphology and atmosphere-soil energy processes/micrometeorology.