农田节肢动物类群不同分类级别和个体数对物种数的替代效果
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国家自然科学基金项目(41901218);国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC0507203);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助(SWU119074)


Substitution effect of different classification levels and individual numbers of arthropod taxa in farmland
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    摘要:

    农田生物多样性评价中常采用指示类群基于物种鉴定水平的数据计算多样性指数,如果能用高级别的分类鉴定结果(如科)或直接用该指示类群个体数来代替该类群物种水平上的多样性指数,可以极大地节省鉴定的成本和降低鉴定难度。同时采用多个指示类群田间取样数据和多种分析方法验证这个问题有助于获得更为普适的结论。为研究农田节肢动物不同分类级别和个体数对于物种丰富度的替代效果,于2019年5-8月在浙江省宁波市的两片不同管理措施和多生境的农田景观区进行了节肢动物群取样调查,并对蜘蛛和蜂类两个类群进行了科级和物种级别的鉴定。通过分析目级和科级分类水平的数目、指示类群的个体数与物种丰富度之间的相关性;并基于这4个指数进行不同管理措施和生境间的双因素方差分析;同时基于目级、科级和物种级别数据,采用非度量多维尺度分析(NMDS)对比他们在不同管理措施和生境间的种类组成差异。结果显示:(1)将蜘蛛、蜂类分类至科级可分别拟合其物种水平数据63%和89%的变异性,并且比目级的数据相关性更大。(2)两个指示类群的个体数与物种数之间都有极为显著的相关性,且r≥0.7。(3)比起目级数,科级数和个体数在不同管理措施和生境间的差异结果和物种数更类似。(4)基于分科数据的NMDS在不同管理措施和生境间差异的结果也和物种级别数据的结果更类似。因此,在农田生物多样性的评估中,可以在一定程度上采用较高层次分类的数据,其中科级水平的数据作为首选,从而降低分类鉴定难度并提高工作效率。在需要快速进行蜘蛛和蜂类等基于大量标本数目的生物多样性评估时,可直接统计指示类群个体数量来替代物种数结果。

    Abstract:

    The diversity index is often calculated based on the data of species identification level. If the diversity index at the species level can be replaced by high-level taxonomic identification results (e.g., families) or directly by the number of individuals within the indicator group, it can greatly save the cost and improve the work efficiency. Field sampling data from multiple indicator taxa and multiple analytical methods could be used to verify this problem, which is helpful to obtain more general conclusion. In order to study the substitution effect of different classification levels and individuals of arthropods on species richness, arthropod sampling was carried out in two different management measures and multi-habitat farmland landscape areas in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province from May to August, 2019. Arthropods were identified to order level, while spiders and bees were identified at both family level and species level. The correlations between the number of taxa at order or family level, the number of individuals in indicator taxa and species richness were analyzed, and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on these four indexes between different management measures and different habitats were carried out. The non-metric multidimensional scale analysis (NMDS) was used to compare their species composition differences between different management measures and habitats based on the data of order, family and species level. The results showed that:(1) 63% and 89% of the variability of species richness based on species level data could be fitted by the number of family of spiders and bees, respectively, and the correlation between species richness and the number of family of spiders or bees (r=0.79 and r=0.95, respectively) was greater than that of arthropod order level data (r=0.32 and r=0.53, respectively). (2) There was a very significant correlation (r ≥ 0.7) between the number of individuals and species richness within the indicator taxon. (3) The two-way ANOVA showed that there were significant differences between different management measures based on three identified level data, but the significant differences among habitats based on the data of family and individuals were more similar to those of species richness than the data of order level. (4) The results of NMDS based on data of family level were also more similar to those of species level than the order level. There were significant differences of species or family composition of spiders or bees among different management measures or some habitats, but not in arthropod order composition. Since the higher classification levels such as the order, are not natural units, but artificial classification levels facilitate the classification of information systems, the results may not better reflect the indicator results of species richness. Therefore, for the assessment of farmland biodiversity, the classification data at a higher level could be used to some extent, especially the family level would be the first choice. If a rapid assessment of farmland biodiversity based on a large number of spider or bee specimens is required urgently, the number of individuals of indicator taxon can be directly counted to replace the results of species richness.

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谢冰一,程新如,吕乐,张宏斌,陈宝雄,刘云慧,宇振荣,段美春.农田节肢动物类群不同分类级别和个体数对物种数的替代效果.生态学报,2022,42(13):5285~5294

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