The National Natural Science Foundation of China Young Scientist Programme (42001194)
The idea of a compatible human-nature relationship generally emerged from the reflection on the "fortress approach" of conservation, and a typical feature of that is the spread of enclosed protected areas for landscape management. Since the 1980s, the idea that protected areas should be socially and economically inclusive has begun to grow, and conservation is no longer limited to making rooms for wildlife but aims at compatible biodiversity and human well-being. Taking "conservation compatible" as a core element and considering its context in the research paper, reports, and plans, the research revealed how conservation compatibility of human activities was rediscovered and achieved during the transition of nature conservation discourse from "fortress" to "community-based". First, the concept of "conservation compatibility" is fully reflected in the land use continuum at the landscape scale from strictly preserved land to various working landscapes. Second, rural land use and traditional agricultural systems become a critical part of nature conservation such as other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs). Third, "conservation compatible" was widely used to describe human land use for resource use, livelihood activities, etc, and the concept was realised through various conservation initiatives and schemes which differ in developing and developed regions. Now conservation compatibility is upscaling to describe the participation of multi-stakeholders and integrated management of all types of lands within the region, across administrative regions, and even among countries for more effective conservation networks at multiple scales. On the other hand, the concept is also downscaling back to communities to advocate protecting global biodiversity based on the local context that defines rural communities' resource governance regime and reflects their desire for development. The research pointed out that the biodiversity conservation mission should pay more attention to productive landscape and agro-biodiversity, as well as the policy coordination between agricultural and conservation sectors. This is mainly because the productive landscape has great potential to support high biodiversity and complement the protected area networks. In addition, the research argued that China must apply the conservation compatible idea to resolve the intense land use conflicts by integrated land use planning and natural-based solutions, and to promote rural development through a conservation-compatible livelihood approach, which emphasises the community subjectivity and initiative in conservation when facing the urgent goal of global biodiversity conservation as developing countries. Therefore, when facing the local developing needs while bearing the mission of building a shared future for all life on earth, China can take the lead to develop concrete solutions based on the conservation-compatible idea for better conservation efficiency and human well-being.