The relationship between leaf and root functional traits, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and environmental factors of 3-year-old ancient Chinese fir seedlings collected from 7 different geographical provenances and sown in a homogenous orchard was analyzed to reveal the influence of geographical environment factors on different provenances of the Chinese fir and their response and adaptation characteristics. The results showed that the coefficient of variation of functional traits was 7.3% to 18.9%, and the coefficient of variation of stoichiometry provenances was 1.6% to 18.9%. The coefficient of variation of C content in leaves and roots were relatively small, indicating that C is the most stable element in the Chinese fir. There were significant differences in leaf thickness, specific leaf area, leaf tissue density, specific leaf weight, and leaf dry matter content of Chinese fir from different geographical provenances, indicating that Chinese fir leaf morphology had strong plasticity to adapt to the geographical environment variety of different provenances. The differences in root N content, root C ∶ N and root C ∶ P were extremely significant, reflecting the potential effects of climate and soil nutrients of different provenances on root stoichiometry. The provenance of Wengongshan Mountain in Jiangxi Province had the largest specific leaf area, but the specific root length and root dry matter content was the smallest. The contents of C and C ∶ P in leaves and the C ∶ N and N ∶ P in roots of the Chinese fir from Xiuning, Anhui provenance were the smallest, and the contents of N and P in fine roots was the highest. The C ∶ N of the fine roots from Anfushan, Jiangxi provenance was the largest, while the content of N ∶ P in leaves, and the contents of C, N, P, C ∶ N and C ∶ P in fine roots were the smallest. The longitude of the different geographical provenance was significantly positively correlated with the leaf tissue density and leaf C ∶ P. Following the precipitation gradient increases, the N ∶ P of leaf root, specific leaf area, and leaf mass per area increased. With altitude increasing and temperature decreasing, leaf thickness increased, leaf tissue density decreased, leaf dry matter content decreased, and specific leaf area decreased. The analysis of the trade-off relationship between the functional traits of the Chinese fir from different provenances shows that the root specific surface area of different provenances is significantly negatively correlated with the specific leaf area, and extremely significantly positively correlated with the specific leaf weight. The N and P concentrations of leaf and root are extremely significant positive correlation, so there is a correlation between the leaf area and root area of Chinese fir, the growth of root length and root area have the same trend, and the corresponding N and P element contents of roots and leaves are also the same.