华南五针松濒危机制的生态学研究
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北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院 北京 100083

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An ecological study on the endangered mechanism of Pinus kwangtungensis
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School of Nature Conservation,Beijing Forestry University

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    摘要:

    为了揭示珍稀濒危特有种华南五针松天然种群的生存状况,在全面调查广东南岭国家级自然保护区华南五针松分布的基础上,结合文献收集法,利用群落内不同乔木的胸径、树高、冠幅等指标,计算不同海拔梯度内华南五针松种群的平均生存压力,分析不同海拔梯度内华南五针松种群的空间格局。结果表明:1)、海拔高度和温度影响群落的空间格局,沿994m至1600m的海拔梯度上华南五针松种群空间格局以聚集为主,且随海拔的升高,种群聚集强度增加,当达到1600m时,聚集强度降低,种内和种间竞争减缓,生存压力变小;2)、华南五针松种群平均生存压力指数总体沿海拔梯度上升呈递减趋势(R2=0.31,P<0.05),中低海拔华南五针松种群生存压力较大,高海拔聚集强度降低,生存压力减小,华南五针松有向高海拔迁移的可能,当达到1710m以上时,最终会因分布区逐渐缩小、生存环境恶劣和不适应等因素造成最终灭绝;3)、群落种间结构的复杂性造成种间和种内竞争激烈,同一海拔梯度上华南五针松种群平均生存压力指数不同;4)、针对华南五针松人工林,种群平均生存压力指数为50,受到来自竞争树种的威胁大,需加以严格保护。华南五针松幼苗更新缓慢,属衰退型种群,且物种之间存在“竞争驱赶”的现象,这可能是导致华南五针松种群濒危的重要生态因素。

    Abstract:

    Pinus kwangtungensis is an endangered species endemic to China. It is classified as a national second-class protected wild plant species in China, and a vulnerable species on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. In order to reveal the survival pressure status, we carried a comprehensive field investigation on the natural populations of Pinus kwangtungensis by setting up quadrats along an altitudinal gradient from 994 m to 1710 m in the Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province. Combined with the literature collection method, the ecological factors, such as DBH(diameter at breast height), tree height, and canopy of different trees in the community, were measured, and the spatial pattern and the average survival pressure index of Pinus kwangtungensis population were analyzed and calculated at different altitudes gradient. The results are as follows. 1) The altitude and the temperature affected the spatial pattern of the community, the spatial pattern of Pinus kwangtungensis population was mainly aggregated distribution along thealtitude gradient. However, with the increasing of altitude, the values of Iδ and m* gradually increased, that is to say, the aggregation intensity of Pinus kwangtungensis population was increasing, after a certain height, the value of K gradually decreased, the aggregation intensity also decreased, the intra- and inter-species competition was slowed down, the survival pressure became lessening. It shows that with the increase of altitude, the population survival pressure firstly increased and then decreased, higher altitude is beneficial to the survival of Pinus kwangtungensis. There is a “competitive driving” between species, and its existence can also be verified. 2) The average survival pressure index of Pinus kwangtungensis population showed a decreasing trend along the altitude gradient (R2=0.31,P<0.05). The survival pressure is higher at middle and low altitude, the aggregation intensity at high altitudes is decreased, and the survival pressure also is decreased. It is possible to migrate to high altitudes for better survival, and, the Pinus kwangtungensis population will eventually become extinct due to factors such as the gradual shrinkage of the distribution area, poor living conditions and maladaptation, there is an existence of “competitive driving”. 3) The complexity of the interspecific structure of the community was resulted in fierce competition of the intra- and inter-species. The average survival pressure index of Pinus kwangtungensis population was different at the same altitude gradient; 4)The average survival pressure index of Pinus kwangtungensis in planted forest was 50. It is threatened by the competition tree species and needs to be strictly protected. The seedling regeneration of Pinus kwangtungensis population is slow, which belonged to a declining population, and there is a phenomenon of “competitive driving” among species, which may be considered an important ecological factor leading Pinus kwangtungensis to be an endangered species.

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王俊,潘鸿,谢磊,崔国发.华南五针松濒危机制的生态学研究.生态学报,,(). http://dx. doi. org/10.5846/stxb202103120670

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