荒漠生态系统磷循环及其驱动机制研究进展
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中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA2003010301);国家自然科学基金项目(41671103);宁夏回族自治区交通厅项目(WMKY1)


Advances on phosphorus cycle and their driving mechanisms in desert ecosystems: A review
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    摘要:

    磷(P)循环在维持荒漠生态系统的生物多样性水平、结构和功能的稳定性、元素的动态平衡,以及荒漠自然资源的可持续利用方面有重要作用。通过查阅国内外有关P循环的文献资料,发现当前国内尚缺乏针对荒漠生态系统P循环的系统研究,特别是P循环的生物和非生物驱动机制。综述了荒漠生态系统P的输入-输出过程,植物对P的吸收转运机制以及对P循环的作用,生物土壤结皮(BSC)有机分泌物对P循环的贡献,以及荒漠生态系统P循环过程对气候变化的响应机制等。文末展望了荒漠生态系统P循环的一些重要研究方向和亟需解决的科学问题,包括(1) P在荒漠生态系统中的存在形态、分配及动态平衡;(2)土壤微生物对荒漠植物获取土壤有效P的驱动作用;(3)入侵植物对P循环的影响与潜在生态风险评估;(4)利用分子生物学和基因组学手段揭示真菌-荒漠植物根系系统P循环的基因调控机制;(5)微生物分泌物、土壤磷酸酶类(包括磷酸单酯酶、磷酸二酯酶和三磷酸单酯水解酶)和作用于含磷酸酐和N-P键的酶对土壤P循环的调控;(6)气候变化(干旱、高温和降水节律变化等)如何影响P的生物和非生物转化过程;(7)基于同位素示踪和生态化学计量学理论解释荒漠生态系统P循环路径及其稳定性维持机制。

    Abstract:

    Phosphorus (P) cycle is critical for maintaining biodiversity, structural and functional stability, elemental balance and natural resources for sustainable development in desert ecosystems. To date, by the published works referring to P cycle in desert ecosystems worldwide, we found that studies of P cycle covering desert ecosystems of China is much less comprehensive in particular in elucidating biotic and abiotic driving mechanisms of P cycle. Thereby, we reviewed those shreds of publishes to produce an advance that focused on the P input and output, the mechanisms of adsorbed and transported P by plants and their actions on P cycle, the contribution of organic secretions from biological soil crusts (BSC) on P cycle, and the process of P cycle how to respond to climatic changes. Here, seven impending scientific questions need to be addressed in future studies, including (1) to reveal the chemical fractions, allocation and dynamic balance of P in desert ecosystems; (2) to elucidate the driving functions of soil microorganisms acting on plants uptake available P; (3) to evaluate the potential effects and ecological risks of alien plants acting on P cycle; (4) to explore the mechanisms of gene-regulating P cycle in the fungi-root system by using the approaches of molecular biology and genomics; (5) to explore microbial secretions, soil phosphatase (including phosphomonoesterases, phosphodiesterases, triphosphoric monoester hydrolases), enzymes acting on phosphoryl-containing anhydrides and P-N bonds how to regulate the biological processes of P cycle; (6) to explain the transformation process between organic P and inorganic P under climatic changes; and (7) to quantify P cycle path and uncover the mechanism of P cycle in regulating desert system stability by using isotope tracing and ecology stoichiometry.

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李承义,何明珠,唐亮.荒漠生态系统磷循环及其驱动机制研究进展.生态学报,2022,42(12):5115~5124

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