基于环境DNA宏条形码技术的辽东湾典型围海养殖池塘内水母多样性研究
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辽宁省重点研发计划项目(2020JH2/10200021);辽宁省科学事业公益研究基金资助项目(20180015);国家海洋水产种质资源库(DKA30470)


Research on jellyfish diversity of marine aquaculture pond in Liaodong Bay using environmental DNA metabarcoding technique
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    摘要:

    研究使用环境DNA宏条形码技术(eDNA metabarcoding)检测辽东湾东北部河口区围海养殖池塘水母种类多样性,探索适用于水母种类物种鉴定和监测的新方法。利用环境DNA宏条形码技术,分别基于18S rDNA和COI宏条形码检测了辽东湾东北部河口区围海养殖池塘水母种类多样性,通过水样采集、过滤、eDNA提取、遗传标记扩增、测序与生物信息分析的环境DNA宏条形码标准化分析流程,从围海养殖池塘7个采样点中获得可检测的采样点数据。结果显示,基于18S rDNA宏条形码检测出8种水母种类,其中钵水母纲大型水母2种、水螅水母总纲小型水母6种;基于COI宏条形码技术共检测出19种水母种类,其中钵水母纲大型水母5种、水螅水母总纲小型水母14种;两种DNA条形码标记都显示养殖种类海蜇(Rhopilema esculentum)为优势种。研究结果表明,环境DNA宏条形码技术作为一种新兴的生物多样性监测手段可用于快速检测水母种类多样性,在水母类物种鉴定、监测及早期预警中有较大的应用潜能。

    Abstract:

    In recent years, environmental DNA metabarcoding (eDNA metabarcoding) has been widely used in biodiversity assessment of aquatic organisms due to its cost-effective and non-invasive strategies with the increased sensitivity. To explore new methods for monitoring and detecting jellyfish diversity, this study firstly used eDNA metabarcoding to detect jellyfish diversity of marine aquaculture pond in Liaodong Bay. This study used a standardized process of eDNA metabarcoding analysis, including water collection, water filtration, eDNA extraction, genetic marker amplification, sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. Results showed that all of 8 jellyfish species were detected from 7 sampling sites based on 18S rDNA, including 2 giant jellyfish species and 6 small jellyfish species. A total of 19 jellyfish species were detected from 7 sampling sites based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I(COI) gene fragment, including 5 giant jellyfish species and 13 small jellyfish species. Only one species (Rhopilema esculentum) was the dominant species based on eDNA metabarcoding. Although eDNA metabarcoding cannot completely replace traditional methods, it can be used as a supplementary tool to efficiently assess and monitor jellyfish diversity and species distribution in the sea. Therefore, eDNA metabarcoding had the technological advantages and could be applied to identify jellyfish biodiversity and detect jellyfish species, and are helpful in early monitoring and warning for jellyfish species in aquatic ecosystems.

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李玉龙,鲍相渤,李轶平,周遵春,付杰,高祥刚,陈百灵,李云峰.基于环境DNA宏条形码技术的辽东湾典型围海养殖池塘内水母多样性研究.生态学报,2022,42(13):5303~5313

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