澜沧江两条支流捕食线虫真菌水陆分布差异及关联性
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国家自然科学基金资助项目(U1602262,31360013,31760126)


Differences and correlations of terrestrial and aquatic distribution of nematode-trapping fungi in two tributaries of the Lancang River
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The Key Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

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    摘要:

    为探究微生物在流域中的水、陆分布差异和相互关系,对澜沧江两条支流捕食线虫真菌多样性水陆分布进行了调查研究。在枯水期,以澜沧江一级支流沘江和黑惠江为研究区域,系统布设12个采样点(水流交汇点),每个采样点采集水、陆对称样品各5份,共采集土样120份。结合传统分离纯化、形态学及分子生物学方法筛选和鉴定菌株,按照《Nematode-Trapping Fungi》进行分类,共获得2属13种88株捕食线虫真菌;其中,陆地样品中共分离到2属11种45株,水体底泥中分离出1属10种43株,检出率分别为41.67%和53.33%。结果表明,澜沧江两条支流捕食线虫真菌在物种、属、群落结构3个层面上均存在水陆差异,也相互联系;陆地土壤可能是流域内捕食线虫真菌多样性的源,水流是其重要的传播因子。在流域生态系统内,水陆间的扩散限制和水流的连通性都是维持微生物物种多样性的重要机制。

    Abstract:

    The distribution pattern and maintenance mechanism of biodiversity in ecosystem has always been a core topic in ecological research. Microorganism is the junction of material circulation in all ecosystems on earth, understanding the distribution pattern of microbial diversity has become the key to spatial distribution pattern of the whole biodiversity. However, little is known about the mechanism of the spatial pattern of microbial diversity. One reason is a long-term neglect of the interrelationships between microorganisms in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. And considering the strong diffusion capacity and great diversity of microorganisms, it is necessary to systematically set up symmetrical samples on terrestrial and in aquatic in areas with a strong environmental heterogeneity and carry out qualitative and quantitative measurements by combining pure culture and molecular methods. Nematode-trapping fungi (NTF) are eukaryotic microorganisms easy to isolate, purify and identify. Currently, only 106 species of NTF are known, which are widely distributed in various terrestrial and aquatic habitats around the world. It is efficient to use NTF to study the distribution patterns of microorganisms. We investigated the diversity of NTF on terrestrial and in aquatic in the two tributaries of Lancang River, where has high environmental heterogeneity, to explore the differences and interrelations of microorganism distributions between terrestrial and aquatic in watershed. The primary tributaries of the Lancang River, including the Bijiang River and the Heihui River, were selected as the study areas in low-water seasons, and 12 sampling points were set up systematically in confluent areas of two rivers, 5 terrestrial samples and 5 aquatic symmetrical samples were collected at each sampling point, and a total of 120 samples were collected. Combined the traditional methods of isolation and purification with morphological and molecular biological technology, a total of 88 strains, 13 species and 2 genera were obtained according to the Nematode-Trapping Fungi. Among which 45 strains, 11 species and 2 genera were isolated from the terrestrial samples with detection rates of 41.67%, while 43 strains, 10 species and 1 genus were isolated from the aquatic samples with detection rates of 53.33%. The results showed that there were differences between terrestrial and aquatic in species composition, genera and community structure of NTF in the two tributaries of the Lancang River. The terrestrial soil may be the origin of NTF diversity in the watershed, and water flow is an important transmission factor. In watershed ecosystems, the dispersal restriction between terrestrial and aquatic and the connectivity of water flow are important mechanisms for maintaining microbial diversity.

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张欣,邓巍,朱娅佼,李娜,肖文,杨晓燕.澜沧江两条支流捕食线虫真菌水陆分布差异及关联性.生态学报,2022,42(12):5059~5066

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