社会-生态网络方法研究进展
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国家自然科学基金项目(41991235,42041007);巴彦淖尔生态治理和绿色发展院士专家工作站建设(YSZ2018-1);"科技兴蒙"行动重点专项项目(NMKJXM202008)


Study on social-ecological network method: Progress and prospect
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    摘要:

    社会-生态系统是由一个或多个社会和生态子系统交互作用形成的复杂的、非线性的、动态耦合系统。理解社会与生态子系统之间的复杂交互关系对于实现有效、可持续的环境治理至关重要。社会-生态网络方法是网络理论在社会-生态交互作用研究中应用与发展的产物,在定量刻画社会-生态系统结构、分析系统动态变化、推动系统适应性治理等方面具有重大的应用潜力。系统梳理了国内外现有的社会-生态网络研究,首先从网络的类型、构建模式、分析方法3个方面介绍社会-生态网络方法,并阐述其在资源管理、社会-生态匹配、社会-生态适应性治理领域中的应用,探讨社会-生态网络方法在研究社会-生态交互作用中的优势和挑战,最后提出未来社会-生态网络研究的重点方向,即社会-生态网络的动态变化过程以及社会-生态网络结构与功能关系。研究旨在深化网络分析可用于描述人—自然关系的认识,为社会-生态系统的网络研究提供实践指导,以期促进社会-生态网络方法在我国社会-生态系统研究中的应用。

    Abstract:

    Social-ecological system is composed of social subsystem and ecological subsystem and the interactions between them, whose structures and functions are different from those of social subsystem or ecological subsystem alone. Social-ecological system is therefore characterized by complexity, non-stability and nonlinearity. At present, dynamic evolutions and mutual feedback mechanisms have gradually become the core contents of social-ecological system research. Achieving effective and sustainable environmental governance requires a better understanding of the complex interdependencies in social-ecological systems. However, the complexity, mutual feedback loops and other nonlinear dynamic characteristics of social-ecological dependence, as well as differences in interdisciplinary research paradigms make it very difficult to conceptualize and understand human-nature interactions in the social-ecological system. With the development of modern graph theory, statistical theory, computer technology, etc., network thinking has gradually been practically applied in analyzing the internal relations of the system. Social-ecological network method has been born as a product of the application and development of network theory in the study of socio-ecological interaction, which has great application potential in quantitatively descripting the system structure, analyzing the system dynamic changes, and promoting adaptive governances. We systematize existing social-ecological network studies and introduce the social-ecological network methods in terms of the type of network, building mode and analysis method. Then the article summarizes the social-ecological network method's applications in the field of natural resource management, social-ecological fit, social-ecological adaptability governances. By discussing the advantage and challenge of the social-ecological network method in the research of social-ecological interaction, we believe that the generalization of the social-ecological system into a network provides an effective way to understand the social-ecological dependence and insight into the behavior of the system. However, currently, the lack of generally recognized social-ecological interaction theory, insufficient practical application cases and researches on the causal relationship between structure and function, etc., still hinder the further development of social-ecological network methods. Finally, we put forward two important directions on strengthening and improving social-ecological network research in the future, that is, to introduce mathematical or physics methods to study the dynamic change process of social-ecological network, and to use more cases to reveal the relationship between the structure and function of social-ecological network. The paper aimed at deepening the understanding that network analysis can be used to describe human-nature relationship, and providing practical guidance for social-ecological network research, to promote a scientific and standardized application of the network method in social-ecological system studies in China.

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张萌萌,王帅,傅伯杰,刘焱序,武旭同.社会-生态网络方法研究进展.生态学报,2021,41(21):8309~8319

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