自然保护地社区生计转型与产业发展的经验与启示
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作者单位:

1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所;2.中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院

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基金项目:

国家自然科学基金青年基金项目


Rural Livelihood transition and industrial development in Protected Areas: Experience and Inspiration
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Affiliation:

1.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research;2.Institute of Science and Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences

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    摘要:

    良好的社区与自然保护地关系首先建立在社区生计的公平与可持续发展上。为促进社区认同、接受乃至参与自然保护地建设与管理,我国自然保护地管理逐渐重视社区利益,推动其生计转型发展与生态保护相协调。社区居民从事产业活动、进行生产经营、参与产业分工,是维持和改善生计的重要方式之一。研究采用质性内容分析方法,从不同研究视角、地理空间和政策背景的案例研究中提取自然保护地社区生计转型及其产业发展路径的内在逻辑,形成内容、激励机制、政策保障、结果、成败分析、发展对策六个核心范畴,以动因与形式、结果与原因来归纳总结前五个范畴的核心事实,根据发展对策提出自然保护地社区生计转型和产业发展原则,并结合国家公园特征和管理目标提出建议。研究表明,在社区层面协同保护与发展本质上来说是降低农户面临的自然、政策和市场风险的过程,生计可持续性和公平性双重目标可以通过产业生态化,产业部分替代或完全替代来实现。以产业发展带动生计转型具有经济、社会、文化多重效益,但其实现需要尊重本土文化,保障社区基本权利,多方参与协作,匹配和提升居民差异化能力。在国家公园体制建设中社区生计发展特别需要依托本地资源,对标市场需求,推进产业生态化,拓展传统产业功能,从自然和半自然生态系统的协同中寻求生态和文化价值向经济价值转化。

    Abstract:

    A healthy community-protected area relation essentially relies on the fair and sustainable development of rural livelihood. In order to promote community’s approval, acceptance of, and participation in the construction and management of protected areas, authorities gradually set store on community interest and continue complying livelihood transition with conservation. However, it is an under explored domain that how community livelihood development progressed across different protected areas in China, especially when regional industry development is an important way of maintaining and improving rural livelihood because community people are actively engaged with diverse industry practice, managing production and operation, and participating in industry division. This research uses qualitative content analysis to induce the inherent logic of rural livelihood transition and industrial development of protected areas from case studies of different perspectives, geographic locations and policy background. Research papers were firstly searched in the CNKI journal database under the rule of “community”, “livelihood” and “conservation” as research themes. Only case studies of protected areas were selected and cases without enough information of livelihood transition or industrial development were further omitted. In total, 28 paper were used and about 30 cases were reviewed, covering a time range of 30 years and including different ecosystems. A grounded theory approach has been followed to produce six core categories of content, incentives, policy guarantee, outcomes, success/failure analysis and development countermeasures. The relations among these categories have formed a dynamic pathway of community livelihood transition in protected areas. Each of the categories has many concepts and facts to support the category. The core facts of the first five categories are summarised to motivation and forms, and outcomes and their causes. The sixth category is developed to provide principles of community livelihood transition and industrial development in protected areas. Finally, some suggestions are put forward to national park management according to its features and objectives. Research reveals that coordinating conservation and development at community level in essential is a process of risk reduction, during which natural risks, policy risks and market risks should all be controlled for rural households. The dual aims of sustainable and fair livelihood are realised through ecologisation of industries, partial substitution of industries or complete substitution. Results show that industrial development facilitated livelihood transition leads to outcomes beyond economic benefits to have social and cultural benefits. However, to fully achieve these benefits, authorities should respect local culture, guarantee land use right of rural households, and encourage multi-party participation to allocated resources and activate market and civil power. Thus, policies and projects can be designed and implemented to match individuals and households with different capabilities, and capacity building is a more targeted process other than a universal one. During the construction of national parks, community livelihood development should rely on local resources, carter to market demands, promote industry ecologisation and expand traditional industrial functions. The final objective is to enhance transition of ecological and cultural values to economic values through a collaborated artificial and natural system.

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何思源,王博杰,王国萍,魏钰.自然保护地社区生计转型与产业发展的经验与启示.生态学报,,(). http://dx. doi. org/10.5846/stxb202012083125

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  • 收稿日期:2020-12-08
  • 最后修改日期:2021-06-07
  • 录用日期:2021-04-16
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-07-23
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