1.School of Natural Resources, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Beijing Normal Universit;2.School of Natural Resources, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Beijing Normal University
The National Natural Science Foundation of China (General Program, Key Program, Major Research Plan)
高寒草甸和高寒草原作为青藏高原两种重要植被类型，研究其植被变化与气候变化相关性，有助于为青藏高原两种高寒草地生态系统应对全球气候变化管理提供参考。本研究以位于同纬度的三江源高寒草甸和阿里高寒草原为研究对象，基于植被净初级生产力（Net Primary Productivity, NPP）变化表征植被变化，利用NPP数据和气象数据，分别分析两地2000—2017年植被NPP、降水和气温时空变化差异；利用Sen+ Mann-Kendall趋势检验，研究两种高寒草地气候与植被净初级生产力变化趋势；以县域统计年鉴牛羊肉产量表征放牧强度，研究放牧活动对高寒草地植被变化的影响；通过Pearson相关和偏相关分析方法，分别研究降水和气温对两种高寒草地植被NPP变化影响差异。研究结果表明：⑴2000—2017年三江源高寒草甸和阿里高寒草原区年平均气温以0.085℃/a和0.084℃/a的趋势上升，降水以平均每年3.87 mm和2.23 mm的趋势增加，高寒草甸区变暖变湿速率较高寒草原区快。⑵三江源高寒草甸和阿里高寒草原植被NPP均呈现由东南向西北逐渐降低空间格局；2000—2017年高寒草甸区57.7%植被NPP呈现上升趋势，而高寒草原区50.96%植被NPP呈现上升趋势，高寒草甸植被NPP增长趋势较高寒草原明显。⑶三江源高寒草甸和阿里高寒草原两种草地植被变化受放牧影响不大，受气候变化影响较大。⑷三江源高寒草甸大部分植被NPP增长与气温呈显著正相关而与降水呈显著负相关，高寒草甸植被NPP主要受温度调控，而阿里高寒草原植被NPP受降水和温度的双重调控。
Alpine meadow and alpine steppe are two important vegetation types on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Studying the correlation between vegetation change and climate change in alpine meadow and alpine steppe is helpful to provide reference for the management of the two alpine grassland ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in response to global climate change. In this study, the alpine meadow of the Three-River Headwaters Region and the alpine steppe of Ali located in the same latitude were taken as the research objects. Vegetation changes were characterized based on the changes of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) of vegetation. Based on NPP data and meteorological data, the spatial and temporal variations of NPP, precipitation and air temperature between 2000 and 2017 were analyzed. Sen+ Mann-Kendall trend test was used to study the change trend of climate and vegetation net primary productivity in two alpine grasslands. The effects of grazing activities on the vegetation change of alpine grassland were studied by using the yield of beef and mutton in county statistical yearbooks. Through Pearson correlation and partial correlation analysis, the variation trend of precipitation and air temperature on vegetation NPP and the difference of precipitation and air temperature on NPP of two alpine grasslands were studied respectively. The results show that: (1) from 2000 to 2017, the annual average temperature in Three-River Headwaters Region alpine meadow and Ali alpine steppe increased at 0.085℃/a and 0.084℃/a, and the annual average precipitation increased at 3.87 mm and 2.23 mm, respectively. The warming and wetness rate in the alpine meadow was faster than that in the alpine steppe. (2) The NPP of the alpine meadow in the Three-River Headwaters Region and the alpine steppe in Ali showed a decreasing spatial pattern from southeast to northwest. From 2000 to 2017, the NPP of 57.7% of alpine meadow vegetation presented an upward trend, while that of 50.96% of alpine steppe vegetation showed an upward trend. The NPP of alpine meadow vegetation increased more obviously than that of alpine steppe. (3) The alpine meadow in the Three-River Headwaters Region and the alpine steppe in Ali region were less affected by grazing and more affected by climate change. (4) The NPP growth of most alpine meadow vegetation in the Three-River Headwaters Region was significantly positively correlated with air temperature and negatively correlated with precipitation. The NPP of alpine meadow vegetation was mainly regulated by temperature, while the NPP of alpine steppe vegetation in the Ali region was controlled by both precipitation and temperature.
梁大林,唐海萍.青藏高原两种高寒草地植被变化及其水温驱动因素分析.生态学报,,(). http://dx. doi. org/10.5846/stxb202012033093复制