The ecological civilization and poverty alleviation are both important national strategies. Because there is a close coupling relationship between poverty and eco-environmental problems, exploring the implementation path of ecological poverty alleviation measures in ecological protection and restoration can achieve a win-win situation between ecological environment improvement and socio-economic development. In this paper, an analysis model of correlation between ecosystem service and poverty was constructed. Ningwu and Jingle counties in Shanxi Province was taken as the case area, where there are pilot projects of ecological protection and restoration of mountain-water-forests-cropland-lakes-grasses. The village-level multidimensional poverty indicators (VPI) is used to evaluate the poverty level and identify key areas for ecological restoration in conjunction with ecosystem services, and layout appropriate ecological poverty alleviation measures. The results show that high poverty areas account for 41% of the study area, middle poverty areas account for 47%, and low poverty areas account for 12%. Differences in terrain conditions, labor conditions, and living standards have formed the different spatial distribution pattern of poverty in Ningwu and Jingle County. The calculation results of ecosystem services such as water conservation, soil conservation, food supply in the study area were superimposed on the poverty level for each of the nine types. Based on the superimposed results, the study area is divided into five types of zones:low-poverty restoration area, low-poverty protection area, middle-poverty restoration area, high-poverty restoration area, and high-poverty protection area. The protection-oriented poverty alleviation measures will be implemented at the low-poverty protection area and high-poverty protection area. It shall use the opportunity of ecological restoration to solve the main poor factors at low-poverty restoration area, middle-poverty restoration area and high-poverty restoration area. This study provides a reference for the combination of ecological protection and restoration with ecological poverty alleviation in poor and underdeveloped rural areas.