National Natural Science Foundation of China regional Science Foundation project,Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China
随着生态文明建设上升为国家战略，生态安全与保护修复格局的识别成为国土空间规划战略中关于生态空间保护的重要内容。为了促进区域生态系统的保护修复及有效管理，从空间尺度上对区域生态安全和修复区域的识别必不可少。利用InVEST模型的Habitat Quality模块分析了阿勒泰地区1995年、2005年和2018年的生境质量变化状况，从生态环境保护的角度出发构建区域生态安全格局，结果发现：（1）1995-2018年阿勒泰地区生境质量处于中等水平，总体呈下降趋势，说明当地生态系统有不断退化趋势；（2）以生态结构系统性和生态过程完整性为目标，通过MSPA分析结合景观连通性识别出15块生态源地，处于阿勒泰北部的山间林地和乌伦古湖区域；利用ArcGIS软件的Cost Distance工具识别出阿勒泰地区有效生态廊道38条，长约2466km，总面积约80.08km2，其中草地和林地是生态廊道穿越的重点区域；识别出最小阻力路径与生态廊道交叉处的生态节点52个，主要分布在草地和林地区域；（3）通过生境质量与最小累积阻力值识别出三类生态保护关键区域，分别为生态涵养区、生态维护区和生态保育区，结合各类生态保护关键区域的存在的生态问题提出不同的生态保护方向。研究结果为阿勒泰地区生态保护修复按照三类生态保护分区分别提出了不同的保护方向，可为阿勒泰地区国土空间生态保护修复关键区域识别和为保障区域生态系统整体保护及可持续发展政策制定提供参考。
As the construction of ecological civilization has become a national strategy, the ecological space identification has become an important part of the contents of ecological protection in territory development plan. To promote regionally ecological protection, restoration and effective management, it is necessary to analyze and identify regional ecological security and restoration patterns. In this study, Habitat Quality module of InVEST Model is used to analyze Altay Prefecture's habitat quality changes in 1995, 2005 and 2018.We constructed regionally ecological security pattern from the perspective of ecological environment protection. The following conclusions were drawn.(1) From 1995 to 2018, the habitat quality in Altay Prefecture was at a medium level and showed a decrease trend which indicated that the local ecosystem had a continuous tendency of degradation. (2) Aiming to maintain systematicness of ecological structure and the integrity of ecological process, based on the morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) combined with landscape connectivity method, there were fifteen ecological sources, which located in the north intermountain forest land and around Ulungur Lake. Thirty-eight effective ecological corridors with a length of about 2466km and about 80.08km2 were identified which crossed among the grassland and forest in Altay Prefecture using Cost Distance toolbox of ArcGIS software. Fifty-two ecological nodes were mainly distributed in grassland and forest, which were identified at the intersection of least resistance paths and ecological corridors. (3) According to the habitat quality and the minimum cumulative resistance value, three types of crucial areas for ecological protection were classified, namely ecological conservation area, ecological maintenance area, and ecological breeding area. The research puts forward different ecological protection directions and proposes major tasks according to ecological-environmental problems in different crucial areas for ecological protection. The research provides different directions for ecological protection and restoration. Three ecological protection zones, which can offer references for identification of crucial areas and the comprehensive ecosystem protection and formulate sustainable development policies in Altay Prefecture.