中华菊头蝠的栖息生态特征及种群保护
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国家自然科学基金项目(13560130,32160241);国家自然科学基金重点国际(地区)合作与交流项目(31961123003)委托子项目;湖南省自然科学基金项目(2021JJ30554)


Roosting ecological characteristics and population conservation of Rhinolophus sinicus as a typical species of cave-dwelling bats in the Xiangxi Prefecture, Hunan Province, central-south China
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    摘要:

    中华菊头蝠(Rhinolophus sinicus)主要分布于我国境内,属于典型的洞栖食虫性蝙蝠,具有重要的研究意义与保护价值。近年,在湘西州境内的16个溶洞中对其栖息生态特征进行了观察,共记录到其个体12942只次,数据分析结果显示:该蝠是该区域溶洞中的居留型优势蝠种,具有集群冬眠的习性。每年的9月中下旬开始逐步聚群冬眠,翌年的3月底开始苏醒,其夏季的繁育场所非常隐蔽,通常位于人无法进入的洞段或人迹罕至的洞穴。总体上,其栖点主要集中于距洞口150-200 m (91.60%)的洞段,离地高度6-10 m (91.75%),多以"双足悬挂"的栖姿将身体悬空倒挂于洞道的顶壁。其体温与栖点温度之间不存在显著性差异(P>0.05),但具有明显的线性正相关关系(R2=0.8886)。其栖点安全性春夏季高,秋冬季中等偏低。中华菊头蝠作为该区域洞栖性蝙蝠的优势种,在维持洞穴生态系统的稳定中发挥着至关重要的作用,加强对洞穴生态系统中蝙蝠伞护性的研究有助于洞穴生态保护教育及对蝙蝠种群的保护实践。

    Abstract:

    The Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus) is a typical cave-dwelling Chiropteran mainly distributed in China, with the crucial ecobiological research and conservation significance. In recent years, we made an investigation into its roosting ecological characteristics, and a total of 12942 individual-by-times (IBT) observed in the 16 karst caves in the Xiangxi Prefecture, Hunan Province, central-south China. Based on the related data analysis, the results showed that Rhinolophus sinicus was the dominant bat species in the Xiangxi Prefecture, with the habit of aggregating to hibernate in the karst caves. Their aggregation for hibernation started in the mid-to-late September, and began to wake up from hibernation in the late March of the following year. And their breeding places in summer were rather secluded, usually located in some inaccessible sections of the caves or other unwegsam caves. On the whole, their microhabitats were largely concentrated in the cave tunnels of 150-200 m from the nearest cave entrance (91.60% of the total number), with a height of 6-10 m from the cave ground (91.75%). They roosted prevailingly on the ceiling of caves by a body posture of upsidedown hanging by two feet and their claws with no adherence to any cave walls or other objects. There was no significant difference between their body and roostpoint temperature (P>0.05), but there was a markedly positive correlation (R2=0.8886). Their roosting safety was high in spring and summer, while medium-to-low in autumn and winter. R.sinicus, as the dominant species of cave-dwelling bats in this region, plays a critical important role in maintaining the stability of cave ecosystem. To strengthen the research on their umbrella-covering roles in cave ecosystem will be helpful to the scientific education of cave ecobiology and conservation practice of bat populations.

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伍丽艳,任伯凇,吴涛,黄太福,龚小燕,刘志霄.中华菊头蝠的栖息生态特征及种群保护.生态学报,2022,42(12):5079~5088

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