国家公园体制背景下中国自然保护地体系变迁--基于多源流理论分析
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中央高效建设世界一流大学(学科)和特色发展引导专项(中国人民大学2022年)


Transitions of the Natural Protected Area System under the development of National Park in China: an Multiple-streams Analysis
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    摘要:

    随着经济社会的发展,中国自然保护地体系经历了由以自然保护区为主体向以国家公园为主体的重要变迁。应用多源流理论分析了中国自然保护地体系变迁。从内在逻辑、民主化程度和变量控制三个方面分析了多源流理论在中国保护地变迁研究中的适用性;从问题源流、政治源流和政策源流三个方面分析了中国自然保护地体系变迁的主要影响因素,梳理了变迁的逻辑路线,总结了变迁的内容,变迁内容包括管理客体、管理主体和管理手段三个方面。结果表明:中国自然保护地体系变迁是问题源流、政治源流和政策源流共同作用的必然结果,表现在问题源流中的指标数据和问题反馈促进了政策源流中政策建议和方案的提出,而焦点事件与政治源流中执政理念的冲突对变迁起到了重要的催化作用;政策源流存在渐进式完善过程,尤其是国家公园体制试点对政策源流的发展起到关键作用。此次变迁的逻辑路径主要包含三股源流的相互作用,通过引入国家公园重塑中国自然保护地体系,促进其系统性、整体性和协同性发展。

    Abstract:

    As socio-economic developed, the main components of the natural protected area system in China has experienced an important transition from nature reserves to national parks. Based on multiple-streams framework, the systematic changes of natural protected area system under the background of national park development was analyzed. First, the applicability of multi-streams theory in the study on China's natural protected area was demonstrated from three aspects, namely internal logic, degree of democratization and control of multiple-variables. The key influential factors in the transition of China's nature reserve system were identified from the aspects of problem stream, policy stream and political stream. Then, the logical route of the transition were summarized, the changes were concluded as well. In which, management object, management subject and management strategies were the three main changes in the transition of China's nature reserve system, aiming to reform and solve the existing problems in China's nature reserve system. By adding the type of national park as the main component, resources in the natural protected area were integrated and optimized, which could be regarded as the change of management object. While the change of management subject was mainly explored in the establishment of a unified, standardized and efficient management system, and the National Park Administration uniformly performed the management responsibilities of national parks and other nature reserves. Changes of management strategies were to establish modern management system with multilateral participation, adhering to government leadership and multilateral participation, and highlighting the social welfare of the construction of nature reserve system. The results showed that, the transition of China's natural protected area system was an unavoidable result of cohort impacts of problem stream, policy stream and political stream. The index data and problem feedback in problem stream promoted the proposals and suggestions in policy stream, while the conflicts between focus events and governance concept in the political stream catalyzed the transition of China's natural protected area system. A gradual improvement process was found in the policy stream, and especially the trials of national park pilot played a key role in the development of policy stream. The logical route of the change was mainly affected by the interaction of the three streams. The increase of problems in the nature reserve system promoted the proposals of policy schemes and policy pilots. As the policy pilot putting forward, the technical feasibility of the policy scheme could be continuously enhanced, which laid a foundation for the progress of the national parks. By the development of national parks, China's nature reserve system is reshaped to promote its systematic, integrated and coordinated development.

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郭甲嘉,沈大军.国家公园体制背景下中国自然保护地体系变迁--基于多源流理论分析.生态学报,2022,42(15):6430~6438

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