流域上游居民接受生态补偿意愿及其偏好研究——以新安江流域为例
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1.宁波大学商学院;2.浙江大学经济学院;3.浙江农林大学经济管理学院

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国家社科基金重点项目(19AJY007)


The upstream residents’ willingness to accept of ecological compensation and their preferences: Evidence from Xin’an River Basin
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1.School of Business,Ningbo University;2.School of Economics,Zhejiang University

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    摘要:

    上游居民实践中甚少收到生态补偿资金,流域生态补偿的普惠性亟需提高。普惠的生态补偿不仅要增加上游居民的获得感,还要通过准确把握上游居民接受生态补偿意愿及其偏好让他们得以获得与生态增益行为贡献相匹配的补偿。本文以中国首个跨省流域生态补偿机制试点——新安江流域生态补偿为例,基于条件价值法研究了上游居民接受生态补偿的意愿及其影响因素。研究发现:(1)上游地区基于居民最小受偿意愿的合意生态补偿规模约为165.60亿元/年,其中浙江淳安县和安徽黄山市的合意受偿规模分别为44.32亿元/年和121.28亿元/年。(2)上游居民的受偿意愿随其年龄和家庭人口数的增加而提高,农村居民的补偿诉求比城镇居民更高,收入变化带来的受偿意愿边际变化约为0.04。(3)淳安县居民受到的环境规制强度偏高,他们的受偿意愿也更高;上游居民参加环保志愿活动的频率与他们的受偿意愿正相关。(4)上游居民感知的政府环保投入负担与实际负担不匹配,流域政府需增加有效生态公众宣传以实现政府环保投入和治理成效的价值。(5)异地移民就业安置政策在一定程度上可以缓解补偿资金缺口压力和地方有效就业压力。

    Abstract:

    The watershed ecological compensation mechanism plays an important role in the creation of ecological civilization, and improving the watershed ecological compensation mechanism is an important policy arrangement to implement the reform of China"s ecological civilization system. Upstream residents seldomly receive the ecological compensation funds in practice, so the universal benefit of ecological compensation in the river basin needs to be improved. The universal benefit of ecological compensation should not only increase the sense of gain of upstream residents, but also enable them to obtain ecological compensation funds matching the contribution of ecological conservation by accurately understanding the upstream residents’ willingness and preference. This paper takes the ecological compensation project of the Xin’an River Basin as an example, which is the first trans-boundary pilot of watershed ecological compensation project at the provincial level in China, then estimates the upstream residents’ willingness to accept (WTA) based on the contingent valuation method and explores its determinants. It is shown that: (1) the annually ecological compensation fund demand for upstream area is 16.560 billion Yuan based on the upstream residents’ WTA estimates. Specifically, the annually ecological compensation fund demand of Chun’an County and Huangshan City are 4.432 billion Yuan and 12.128 billion Yuan, respectively. (2) The WTA estimates of the upstream area become larger as the respondent’s age or her/his family number increases, while the rural residents need be compensated more than the urban residents, and the income elasticity of the allocation of compensation fund is approximately 0.04. (3) The perceived intensity of environmental regulation of Chun’an is significantly higher than that of Huangshan, and the willingness to accept of Chun’an is also significantly higher. The frequency of the upstream residents’ voluntary participation in environmental protection is positively correlated with the WTA. (4) The upstream residents’ perceived burden of government’s expenditure of environmental protection does not match reality. Therefore, the government needs to increase the publicity on ecological protection to realize the value of government investment in environmental protection and the effectiveness of governance. (5) The allopatric employment policy can serve as a beneficial supplement to alleviate the monetization payment pressure of ecological compensation and employment pressure in the local area. While the allopatric employment policy including the employment subsidy policy, free education and training policy can be implemented, the sustainability needs to be explored by more empirical analysis.

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谢慧明,毛狄,沈满洪.流域上游居民接受生态补偿意愿及其偏好研究——以新安江流域为例.生态学报,,(). http://dx. doi. org/10.5846/stxb202009132383

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