滦河干流中上游浮游细菌群落多样性及其影响因素
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国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2017ZX07301-001-03)


Characteristics of bacterioplankton community with relations to environmental parameters in upstream and midstream of the Luanhe River, China
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Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment

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    摘要:

    浮游细菌是河流生态系统中营养元素的转运者和能量流动的主要贡献者,其群落组成和多样性会受沿途河岸带环境的影响,但目前对开放流动水体中浮游细菌群落的研究还不足。研究使用高通量测序方法,获取了滦河中上游21个样点的浮游微生物群落数据,并结合遥感数据和水体理化指标进行分析,探讨浮游细菌群落结构与水环境因子的关系。结果表明:(1)变形菌门和放线菌门是滦河干流中占据优势地位的门类。(2)群落Chao1丰富度指数与Shannon's多样性指数均与采样点距河流源头距离存在显著负相关(P<0.05),其中Chao1丰富度指数在河流中段的反常升高暗示着外源性偶见种在该河段的大量涌入。(3)采样点距源头距离与细菌群落组成相关性最高;以距源头距离作为控制变量,只有总氮、硝酸盐氮、氨氮与细菌群落组成相关(P<0.05),表明距源头距离所代表的滞水时间和氮营养盐对细菌群落组成存在显著影响。(4)在4种土地利用因子中,无论是否以距源头距离作为控制变量,只有建设用地占比与细菌群落组成相关(P<0.05);若以硝酸盐氮、电导率作为控制变量,则建设用地占比与细菌群落组成在α=0.05的显著性水平下不再显著相关;若以总氮、氨氮、pH、叶绿素a和流速作为控制变量,则建设用地占比与细菌群落组成在α=0.1的显著性水平下不再显著相关。上述结果表明,建设用地对于浮游细菌群落的组成存在影响,包括通过改变硝酸盐氮的排放而造成的直接影响,以及通过改变河流的水文和理化条件而造成的间接影响。

    Abstract:

    In river ecosystem, bacterioplankton are major contributors to nutrient transport and energy flow, whose composition and diversity are affected by the riparian environment, while little is known about the bacterioplankton communities in open lotic water. In this study, based on high-throughput sequencing technology, we acquired bacterioplankton community data of 21 samples in the middle and upper reaches of Luanhe River and analyzed it combining with remote sensing data and water physical and chemical parameters, to study the relationship between bacterioplankton community and water environmental factors. Results showed that:(1) Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in the Luanhe River. (2) Chao1 richness index and Shannon diversity index were significantly negatively correlated with distance from headwater (P<0.05). The abnormal increase of Chao1 richness index in the middle reaches suggested a large influx of allochthonous rare species. (3) Distance from headwater was the most correlated variable with the composition of bacterial community. In the case that the distance from headwater was a control variable, only total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen were correlated to the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix of bacterial community (P<0.05), which indicated that the residence time represented by the distance from headwater and nitrogen nutrients had significant influence on the composition of bacterial community. (4) Among the four land use factors, only the area ratio of the urbanized land was correlated with the composition of bacterial community (P<0.05), regardless of whether the distance from headwater was used as the control variable. However, after taking nitrate nitrogen and electroconductibility as control variables, there was no significant correlation between area ratio of the urbanized land and composition of bacterial community at the significance level α=0.05. With total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, pH, chlorophyll-a and velocity of flow as control variables, the area ratio of the urbanized land was no longer correlated with the composition of bacterial community at the significance level α=0.1. Results indicate that the urbanized land can affect the composition of planktonic bacterial community directly by changing the nitrate nitrogen emission, or indirectly by changing hydrological, physical and chemical conditions of the river.

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刘洋,刘琦,田雨露,董满宇,徐霞,关梦茜,江源.滦河干流中上游浮游细菌群落多样性及其影响因素.生态学报,2022,42(12):5103~5114

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