广西扶绥白头叶猴对栖息地的选择与利用
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国家自然科学基金项目(31960104,31960106)


Habitat selection and use of a group of white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) in Fusui, Guangxi, China
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    摘要:

    为了解白头叶猴(Trachypithecus leucocephalus)的栖息地利用规律及其影响因素,2016年2月至2017年1月,采用瞬时扫描取样法对广西崇左白头叶猴国家级自然保护区一群白头叶猴的栖息地利用进行了研究。结果表明,白头叶猴对山体不同部位的利用存在显著性差异(χ2 =39.467,df=3,P<0.001),其中,对崖壁(56.75±9.55)%的利用比例最大,其次是对山坡(39.42±10.93)%和山顶(2.98±2.54)%的利用,而对山脚(0.84±1.47)%的利用频率最低。白头叶猴对不同微生境类型的利用存在差异(χ2=27.709,df=3,P<0.001),其中对乔木(49.37±12.31)%的利用比例最大,其次是裸岩(24.05±13.61)%,随后依次为藤本(15.48±8.01)%和灌木(10.87±5.45)%。白头叶猴主要在山坡上觅食,利用崖壁移动、休息,进行社会活动;主要利用裸岩进行社会活动,觅食、移动、休息主要发生在乔木上。从整体来看,白头叶猴在雨季对乔木的利用频率显著大于旱季(Z=-2.680,n=12,P=0.007);雨季在山坡觅食频率显著大于旱季(Z=-2.517,n=12,P=0.012),而在崖壁觅食频率刚好相反(Z=-2.842,n=12,P=0.004);白头叶猴雨季在乔木休息的频率显著大于旱季(Z=-2.355,n=12,P=0.019)。白头叶猴对栖息地的利用受到温度的影响。白头叶猴对乔木的总体利用频率随着平均温度的升高而增加(r=0.664,n=12,P=0.018);觅食时,对崖壁、裸岩的利用频率均与平均温度成负相关关系(崖壁:r=-0.685,n=12,P=0.014;裸岩:r=-0.600,n=12,P=0.039);休息时,对乔木的利用频率与平均温度呈正相关关系(r=0.650,n=12,P=0.022)。不同季节,白头叶猴对栖息地的利用方式不同。白头叶猴的栖息地利用模式可能是在觅食利益和捕食风险之间作出的权衡,并受到环境温度的影响。

    Abstract:

    In order to understand the habitat utilization rule of the white-headed langur and its influencing factors, a group of white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) was investigated from February 2016 to January 2017 in the Chongzuo White-headed Langur National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China by instantaneous scanning sampling method. The results indicated that significant difference in the utilization of different limestone hill parts of white-headed langur was found (χ2 =39.467, df=3, P<0.001). The cliff was used most frequently (56.75±9.55)%, followed by the slope (39.42±10.93)%, the hill-top (2.98±2.54)%, as well as the valley (0.84±1.47)%. There were significant differences in the utilization of different microhabitat types of langurs (χ2=27.709, df=3, P<0.001). Tree as the preferred microhabitat, and its percentage (49.37±12.31)% was higher than bare rock (24.05±13.61)%, liana (15.48±8.01)%, and bush (10.87±5.45)%. The langurs mainly fed on slope, and other activities, such as moving, resting and social activity were on cliff. Besides, social activity was the only behavior occurred most often in bare rock, while other behaviors occurred most often in trees. There were seasonal differences in limestone hill parts and microhabitat. In overall activities, langurs used trees significantly more in the rainy season than in the dry season (Z=-2.680, n=12, P=0.007). When feeding, langurs used slope significantly more in the rainy season than in the dry season (Z=-2.517, n=12, P=0.012), while the use of cliff was opposite (Z=-2.842, n=12, P=0.004). When resting, in the rainy season the langurs used trees significantly more than in the dry season (Z=-2.355, n=12, P=0.019). Habitat use of white-headed langurs was also influenced by temperature. The utilization frequency of overall activities of the trees increased with the average temperature (r=0.664, n=12, P=0.018). Besides, the utilization frequency of resting of the trees increased with the average temperature (r=0.650, n=12, P=0.022). In contrast, the utilization frequency of cliff and bare rock in feeding was both negatively correlated with the average temperature (cliff:r=-0.685, n=12, P=0.014; bare rock:r=-0.600, n=12, P=0.039). In different seasons, white-headed langurs used its habitat in different ways. Thus, the habitat utilization pattern of white-headed langurs may be a trade-off between feeding benefits and predation risk, and is also influenced by ambient temperature.

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何雪李,陆施毅,黄中豪,李友邦.广西扶绥白头叶猴对栖息地的选择与利用.生态学报,2021,41(21):8664~8672

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  • 收稿日期:2020-08-26
  • 最后修改日期:2021-06-03
  • 录用日期:2021-03-30
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-07-08
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