湿地作为水陆交替的过渡地带，承担着重要的生态服务功能，湿地植物是生态功能作用发挥的基础。不同积水生境与湿地植物物种组成和分布关系密切。黄河流域是国家的重要生态屏障，湿地面积广阔，河南黄河湿地作为黄河湿地的重要组成部分，其积水生境对植物多样性的影响尚不清晰。为研究河南黄河湿地植物的多样性现状以及积水生境对其植物多样性的影响，采用样方和样线相结合的方法对河南省7个黄河湿地自然保护区中的湿地植物进行调查，共设置样方981个。重点分析了不同积水生境湿地植物的主要群系和物种组成，研究了各生境物种多样性和群落多样性特征（α多样性），对比了的不同积水生境植物物种组成相似性和群落间相似程度（β多样性），明确了各生境的植物物种排序和指示种。结果表明：（1）河南黄河湿地植物群系以草本群系为主，共发现188种湿地植物，分属56科，138属；（2）不同积水状况湿地植物物种丰富度大小依次为：季节性积水 > 永久性积水 > 间歇性积水 > 季节性水涝，主要群系总数与物种丰富度趋势表现一致；（3）不同积水生境湿地植物的物种组成存在显著差异，季节性积水和永久性积水生境中植物物种组成相似性和群落间相似程度最高，各积水生境均有明显的优势种和指示种。河南黄河湿地积水生境在不同流段差异显著，不同积水生境下植物多样性和主要植物群系有明显区别，进行湿地生态建设时，建议优先保护季节性积水生境，减少季节性水涝生境的产生，以达到维持物种多样性，发挥湿地最大生态价值的目的。
As a transitional zone between land and water, wetland plays an important role in ecological services. Wetland plants are the basis of ecological function. The composition and distribution of plant species are closely related to different water habitats. The Yellow River basin is an important ecological barrier for the country, and the wetland area is vast. The Yellow River wetland in Henan is an important part of the Yellow River wetland. However, the effects of waterlogged habitats on plant diversity are still unclear. In order to study the plant diversity of the Yellow River wetland in Henan Province and the influence of waterlogging habitats on its plant diversity, we utilized the method of combining quadrat and transect to investigate wetland plants in seven Yellow River wetland nature reserves in Henan Province. In these reserves, a total of 981 quadrats were set for investigation. This research focused on analyzing the composition of main flora and species of wetland plants in different waterlogging habitats. Therefore, we studied the characteristics of species diversity and community diversity (α diversity) in different habitats, and compared the similarity of plant species composition and degree of similarity between communities (β diversity) in different waterlogging habitats. Moreover, the sequence and indicator species of plant species in the seven habitats were also clearly identified. The results show that:(1) Herbaceous flora is the main flora in Henan Yellow River wetland. A total of 188 species of wetland plants, belonging to 138 genera and 56 families, were found. (2) Under different standing water conditions, the plant species richness was in the order of seasonal ponding > permanent ponding > intermittent ponding > seasonal waterlogging. In addtion, the total number of major communities was consistent with the trend of species richness. (3) There are significant differences in plant species composition among different waterlogging habitats. The similarity of plant species composition and communities between seasonal ponding and permanent ponding habitats was the highest. There were obvious dominant species and indicator species in each waterlogging habitat. The hydrological habitats of the Yellow River wetland in Henan province were significantly different in different flow segments. There are obvious differences of plant diversity and main plant groups in different waterlogging habitats in the Yellow River wetland in Henan province. Under the circumstances, we suggest giving priority to the protection of seasonal ponding habitats and reducing the occurrence of seasonal waterlogging habitats during wetland ecological construction, so that we can achieve the purpose of maintaining species diversity and giving full play to the maximum ecological value of wetlands.