海南热带雨林国家公园高速公路穿越段的景观动态与生态风险评估
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1.海南大学生态与环境学院;2.凉山州林业调查规划设计院;3.海南大学生态与环境学院,海南省热带生态环境修复工程研究中心

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中国工程科技发展战略海南研究院2020年咨询研究项目(20-HN-ZT-02); 海南省院士创新平台科研专项(YSPTZX202015); 海南省林业局海南热带雨林国家公园综合科考(植物部分)专项 (HD-KYH-2020008)


Landscape dynamics and ecological risk of the expressway crossing section in the Hainan Rainforest National Park
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Affiliation:

1.College of Ecology and Environment, Hainan University;2.Center for Ecological Restoration Engineering of Hainan Province, College of Ecology and Environment, Hainan University

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    摘要:

    海南热带雨林国家公园被中线高速公路自东北-西南方向穿越,改变了局域景观分布格局,影响到生态系统完整性与原真性,可能存在潜在的生态风险。本研究选取海南热带雨林国家公园高速公路穿越段两侧3 km作为研究区域,运用GIS技术、Fragstats和景观生态学理论定量评价2013年(高速公路未建)、2016年(高速公路在建)和2019年(高速公路竣工)三年的景观要素变化,解析景观变化趋势和可能带来的潜在生态风险。结果表明,2016年高速公路建成面积(含动土区域)为325.51 hm2,林地面积略有减少,但林地斑块密度增加;耕地面积虽略有增加,但耕地最大斑块指数下降,耕地景观优势度降低。2019年高速公路建成竣工后,由于路旁绿化,高速公路占地面积有所下降,林地面积和林地斑块密度增加,但林地和耕地斑块的内聚力指数下降,自然连通度略降低,破碎化程度加剧;高速公路穿越段中等生态风险区和较高生态风险区面积逐年增加。但隧道和高架桥路段在一定程度上维持了道路两侧的植被连通性,对局域生态系统没有明显影响。高速公路造成的生境隔离与破碎化效可能累积产生远期的负面生态学效应。海南热带雨林国家公园高速公路穿越段位于生态敏感的水源涵养区,建议增设隧道式高架林地提升生境连通性和生态系统完整性、增加人工湿地汇聚和净化道路径流、设立长期生态监测样地对关键节点生态过程与生态系统功能特别是水源涵养与水质净化功能等开展监测与生态恢复。

    Abstract:

    Hainan Rainforest National Park is cut across by the Middle-line Expressway of Hainan Island from northeast-southwest direction, which might affect the landscape pattern and ecosystem integrity and functions, and cause potentially ecological risk. In this paper, we chose the regions within 3 km at two sides of the expressway as the study area, and quantitatively evaluated their landscape patterns for three years, i.e. 2013 (before expressway construction), 2016 (expressway under construction), and 2019 (expressway completed), based on GIS, Fragstats and landscape ecology theories. We found that the expressway (including construction areas) in 2016 was 325.51 hm2, forest cover decreased slightly but forest patch density increased. Farmland dominance decreased as a result of increased farmland fragmentation, although its area increased slightly. In 2019, when the expressway completed, the expressway area decreased slightly and forests increased, due to afforesting along the expressway. However, the cohesion index of forest and farmland decreased in 2019, which indicated a lower connection degree and a higher landscape fragmentation. The moderate and high ecological risk area along the expressway had been increasing year by year. Nevertheless, the landscape along the expressway remained relatively unchanged and showed little effects to the ecosystem integrity and functions. The habitat isolation and fragmentation caused by the expressway probably possess negatively ecological effects in future. Particularly, the expressway crossing section in the National Park located in the most important water supply and conserving area of the Hainan Island, i.e. triangle area of Mt. Limu, Yingge, and Wuzhi, where is the headwater region of the three biggest rivers of the island. It is necessary to build overpass woodlands to increase ecosystem connectivity, to build the constructed wetlands to purify runoffs from the expressway, and to establish long-term monitoring sites for enhancing ecosystem functions such as water supply and conserving potential and water purifying ability.

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姚小兰,周琳,吴挺勋,任明迅.海南热带雨林国家公园高速公路穿越段的景观动态与生态风险评估.生态学报,,(). http://dx. doi. org/10.5846/stxb202006191601

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